Oct 17, 2013 - nanowires can be seen in the SEM images (Figure 4c and 3d) as small. Pt nanoparticles covered on the nanowire surface. Further deposition. Figure 1 | Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of the [email protected][email protected] NAs. Figure
Aug 5, 2016 - This method was attempted to achieve the higher homogeneity of the final product. Specimens of nickel-cobalt oxide were characterized by various experimental techniques, including. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microsco
Mar 11, 2015 - electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction hinders the large-scale application. As a new class of porous ... The present study provides some guidelines for the design and synthesis of .... (b) XRD patterns (inset: digital photos)
Jan 30, 2017 - Other signals have not been discovered, which reveal that no SiO2 remains after soak- ing in NaOH solution. Two peaks are centred at 335.44 and .... loss of Co3O4/C. At end of long-term experiment, the mesoporous Pd-Co3O4 (wt 1:1) elec
Jul 22, 2004 - 11. Only Co2 in octahedral sites shows a significant satellite struc- ture. FIG. 2. Oxygen 1s XPS spectra of a Co3O4(110) and b Co3O4( 110) â Cu fitted with ... 1692. S. C. Petitto and M. A. Langell: Surface composition and structure
Feb 20, 2010 - addition, the selectivity to C2H5OH over CO and H2, as well as the response/recovery kinetics, were sig- nificantly improved. ... Cr2O3 , and Co3O4 [21â28] have been reported. However, sen- .... Co3O4 nanocubes to 100 ppm C2H5OH,
Jun 3, 2016 - gratings whose diffraction patterns are very sensitive to bending. The scientific literature describes a variety of cantilever metrology techniques based on diffraction and inter- ference. Interferometry techniques have been implemented
Dec 7, 2016 - The fabricated photonic crystal has Si3N4 cones in a square lattice, sitting on top of a TiO2 index matching layer. This structure attains 1.4% of reflectance power losses in the operation spectral range of GaAs solar cells (440â870 n
Oct 13, 2014 - microscope in transmission mode (Jenaval Interphako u.map, Carl Zeiss, Jena,. Germany), equipped with a THMS600 heating stage (Linkam Scientific Instruments. Ltd., Surrey, UK). In those measurements, the accuracy of optical path length
Feb 29, 2016 - tri-/tetra-ethylene glycol (Tr/TeEG) spacer were synthesized and their chemical structures were ... adaptation. The spacer is used to adjust the pore size and flexibility of as-prepared ...... aqueous solution of wheel-shaped Mo154 oxi
Apr 9, 2015 - assemble and polymerize into a static structure, mimicking in vivo basement layer assembly during sporulation in ... Here, we reconstitute the basement layer of the spore coat atop spherical lipid bilayers ..... lipid extract (Avanti) t
Apr 19, 2016 - sensitivity and accuracy13,20,24,26. Centre for Advanced Materials and Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO ... duced in this study comes from the ease in which close packing formation of gold
Dec 5, 2014 - carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) network are reported as new hybrid electrodes for high power Li-ion batteries. The multi-layer ... fabricated by the slurry casting route often induces a substantial loss in electrical contacts especially if th
Nov 2, 2016 - direction. Accordingly, the laser-based fabrication method here described constitutes a simple, clean, and scalable technique which allows a precise .... longitudinal direction and separated by no-treated material. ... Free and open-sou
May 13, 2015 - Lately interests and ideas have emerged to apply TNs in agricultural practices .... important feature shown by both colloids is that they display both in water and in the applied medium ..... Dickson, J. S. & Koohmaraie, M. Cell surfac
Mar 17, 2015 - photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies using CO ..... XPS spectra of a selection of mono- and bimetallic catalysts, while the Ti 2p and O 1s XPS spectra ..... negative effect on LA
Sep 11, 2015 - Nano-socketed nickel particles with enhanced coking resistance grown in situ by redox ... the parent perovskite, leading to enhanced stability and a significant decrease in the pro- pensity for hydrocarbon coking, .... vacancies are un
Oct 12, 2015 - that is designed to index the molecular input 'signature'. Consequently, the ... filtering and focusing effect (Fig. 1b)31,32, allowing ...... Didovyk, A. et al. Distributed classifier based on genetically engineered bacterial cell cul
Nov 3, 2016 - Final figure design was performed with Adobe Illustrator CS6 (Adobe, USA). Spectral lux-FRET analysis. To investigate cPKC nano-clusters we performed quantitative lux-FRET experiments according to Wlodarczyk et al.28. Apparent FRET effi
Feb 8, 2017 - Figure 1. (a) Typical XRD spectrum shows peaks which are identified for Î²-Ga2O3. (b) Schematic draw of the unit cell of Î²-Ga2O3. There are two nonequivalent Ga sites marked by small spheres Ga (I) (brown) and Ga (II). (orange). There
Aug 31, 2016 - ubiquitous materials to improve the information security of devices3; this is increasingly important as society ... Artifact metrics are based on optical, magnetic, electrical and mechanical .... a diffraction-limited optical apparatus
Mar 2, 2016 - sition22,23, hydrothermal or solvothermal synthesis24,25, and template synthesis26 and (2) other instant stimulation methods such as laser ablation27, arc discharge7,28, and electron beam irradiation29,30. Despite major progress, there
May 14, 2012 - observation of nanomaterial bio-complex formation (other than protein corona) from nanomaterials dispersed ..... 11, 77â89 (2009). 16. Xu, M. S., Fujita, D., Kajiwara, S., Minowa, T., Li, X. L., Takemura, T., Iwai, H. &. Hanagata, N.
Jan 13, 2017 - fine-grained (in sub-microscale or nanoscale) structures exhibiting significantly enhanced mechanical properties have been successfully fabricated in 316 L .... where Îµ is the dielectric constant of passive film, Îµ0 is the dielectric
received: 11 November 2016 accepted: 31 January 2017 Published: 02 March 2017
Highly sensitive H2S sensors based on Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays at and below room temperature Guangliang Cui1, Pinhua Zhang1, Li Chen1, Xiaoli Wang1, Jianfu Li2, Changmin shi1 & Dongchao Wang1 Gas sensors with high sensitivity at and below room temperature, especially below freezing temperature, have been expected for practical application. The lower working temperature of gas sensor is better for the manufacturability, security and environmental protection. Herein, we propose a H2S gas sensor with high sensitivity at and below room temperature, even as low as −30 °C, based on Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays prepared by 2D electrodeposition technique. This heteroarray was designed to be a multi-barrier system, and which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. The sensor demonstrates excellent sensitivity, sub-ppm lever detection, fast response, and high activity at low temperature. The enhanced sensing property of sensor was also discussed with the Cu2O/Co3O4 p-p heterojunction barrier modulation and Cu2S conductance channel. We realize the detection of the noxious H2S gas at ultra-low temperature in a more security and environmental protection way. Conventional gas sensing based on the change of carrier concentration caused by adsorption/desorption of adsorbed oxygen on the surface determines the disability of sensor at extreme conditions, e.g., ultra-low temperature and low gas concentration. First, the temperature dependence of adsorption/desorption process leading to a high working temperature of sensors, which is harmful for the manufacturability, security and environmental protection, high-temperature operation is also undesirable in many situations, particularly in an explosive environment where high temperatures could trigger an explosion1–3. Second and more important, the test signal (i.e. the change of conductivity caused by variation of carriers’ concentration) is very limited if the adsorption and desorption process is weak at extreme conditions. And unfortunately, the linear relationship between the variation of carriers’ concentration and the magnitude of adsorption/desorption process is unbreakable. However, the significant enhancement of conductivity caused by a weak variation of carriers’ concentration can be achieved by interface effect of heterostructure4,5. There have been considerable efforts to improve sensors’ performance under extreme conditions, such as using nanostructured materials with ultra-high surface-to-volume ratios, appropriate element doping, surface decoration with noble metals and construction of heterostructure6–9. Among them, heterostructure materials have been confirmed to be ideal materials for low temperature gas detection. The conductivity of heterostructure materials mainly depends on the heterojunction barrier, which is sensitive to the carrier concentration. Hence, a significant enhancement of conductivity can be obtained even in case of a weak change of carrier concentration. Therefore, heterostructure materials have the ability to perceive slight change of surface absorption under extreme conditions10. Nevertheless, production of sensors operating at lower temperature (especially below freezing temperature) with high sensitivity, fast response, and low power consumption remains a challenging task. Along with the advance of production security and living environmental awareness, the detection of flammable and toxic gases becomes one of the noticeable research topics11. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic gases and possess a health risk at high concentrations as apart from its unpleasant smell even at relatively 1
Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276000, China. 2School of science, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276000, China. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.Z. (email: [email protected])
Figure 1. Morphology and experimental details of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays. (a) Image of heteroarrays captured by an optical microscope at 500×magnification, the pattern exhibits uniform cycle length and good long-range order. (b) SEM image at high magnification showing the periodic structure of heteroarrays. (c) Schematic diagrams showing the construction of the ultra-thin electrolyte layer. (d) Semi-sine waves applied across the electrodes in the electrochemical deposition process. low concentration12. In addition, H2S is corrosive, flammable, and explosive, and the lower explosive limit of H2S for flammability is approximately 4%13. So the high working temperature of sensor is a major threat for H2S detection. To date, several types of sensor, such as porous CuO nanosheets, CuO-ZnO nanorods, SnO2 quantum wire/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and Ag2O/SnO2 ordered mesoporous, have been utilized for H2S gas detection at low temperature14–17. In addition, heterostructure materials show many advantages due to their advantages in conductivity modulation at low temperature4,18. Among the investigated metal oxide sensing materials, the p-type CuxO semiconductor has been extensively researched because of its reversible reaction with H2S19. And the reaction product metallic CuxS give rise to a great change of conductivity, especially for heterostructures based on CuxO. Many CuxO based heterostructure materials have been proposed and achieved some progress in H2S gas detection at low temperature20,21. However, fabrication of gas sensors with lower working temperature is still highly expected. Heterostructure materials with strictly periodic arrangement in millimeter range are ideal candidates for research and nano-microdevice applications. Hence, great attention has been paid to design of new heterojunction architectures to enhance the sensing capability of the sensor22. To improve the performance, we propose a Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays with strictly periodic structure in millimeter range composed of nanojoint and nanowire. Different from previous reported heterojunction materials based on Cu2O/CuO and Co3O4, this heteroarray was designed to be an ordered multi-barrier system with its application based on interface field modulation. The combined effect of both modulation of interface field and formation of metallic Cu2S can induce electrical properties distinct from their individual impact, thereby realizing synergistic performance (“1 + 1 > 2” or “more than the sum of its parts”).
We have made a Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays using 2D electrodeposition by applying a semi-sine wave potential in quasi-2D ultra-thin liquid layer. Figure 1a captured by an optical microscope at 500×magnification, showing a top view of the heteroarrays over a large area, the bamboo-like pattern exhibits uniform cycle length and good long-range order. The substrate was nearly 60% covered by the sample, and the area of a single domain can reach a few square millimeters, it means the biggest heteroarrays with strictly periodic arrangement have dimensions in millimeters. The detailed organization of the heteroarrays was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as shown in Fig. 1b. As shown in SEM image, each cycle is composed of Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
Figure 2. Structure and component of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays. (a) TEM image of the heteroarrays. (b) and (c) are the distribution of Cu and Co corresponding to (a). (d) and (e) are magnification images of Cu and Co distribution, showing the continuous distribution of Cu and heterogeneous distribution of Co. (f) SAED pattern of heteroarrays, the diffraction rings are corresponding to Cu2O and Co3O4. (g) and (h) are curve-fitting results of the Cu 2p and Co 2p XPS spectra. a nanojoint and a nanowire. The good long-range order in millimeters of resulting patterns extend their utility in some applications. These figures provide additional evidence that 2D electrodeposition is an ideal method to synthesize heteroarrays with ordered nano/microstructure in millimeter range without template. The construction of quasi-2D ultra-thin electrolyte layer was shown in Fig. 1c, and the thickness of the ultra-thin layer is about 300 nm. The waveform of the applied voltage is found to be semi-sine with a frequency of 0.8 Hz and amplitude varied between 0.5 and 1.5 V, as shown in Fig. 1d. The waveform supplied by an arbitrary waveform generator. Structure and component of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays were confirmed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM image further reveals the bamboo-like morphology of heteroarrays (Fig. 2a). Element-distribution mapping in Fig. 2b and c corresponding to Fig. 2a show the distribution of Cu and Co, and local enlarged images of Cu and Co distribution are shown in Fig. 2d and e respectively. We can see that the Cu is distributed throughout the whole sample, but the Co is heterogeneous. We can conclude that the Co3O4 is located mainly at the nanojoint and discrete at the nanowire. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of heteroarrays (Fig. 2f) demonstrates a typical ring structure characteristic for polycrystalline materials and agrees well with the structure of Cu2O and Co3O4. The atomic planes (110), (111), (200), (310) of Cu2O and (311), (331), (511) of Co3O4 can be fully indexed. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
Figure 3. The interface electrostatic field distribution of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays. (a) 3D stereogram of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays. (b) The top view of heteroarrays present the test zone of electrostatic force in (a), and the line-profile analysis path is marked by black line simultaneously in (a) and (b). (c) The distribution of electrostatic field along with the variation of height of heteroarrays. was characterized and supplied in Fig. S1. The spacings of the fringes were measured to be 0.25 nm for Co3O4 and 0.3 nm for Cu2O, corresponding to the (311) plane of Co3O4 and the (110) plane of Cu2O. The results well agree with the SAED. Furthermore, Co3O4 and Cu2O are tightly contacted with each other, and the boundary is distinct. The elemental composition and chemical states of the heteroarrays were further confirmed using XPS. The binding-energy values at 932.4 eV and 952.2 eV represent Cu 2p in the nanocomposites, as shown in Fig. 2g. This result indicates that the Cu exists in a Cu+ oxidation state23. The XPS spectra of Co peaks is presented in Fig. 2h. Their consistent binding energies (780.3 eV, 793.7 eV and shake-up peaks) represent the integrated peaks of Co3O424. Figure 3 shows 3D stereogram image and electrostatic field distribution of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays characterized by Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). SPM with electrostatic field microscope (EFM) function allows the measurement of electrostatic field distribution25. The line-profile analysis path was marked by black line simultaneously in Fig. 3a (3D stereogram image of heteroarrays) and Fig. 3b (top view of the corresponding test zone in Fig. 3a). The variation in surface elevation is very regular along the growth direction, as shown in Fig. 3a. The height of nanojoint and nanowire are about 250 nm and 50 nm (Fig. 3c). Our line-profile analysis path of electrostatic force was along the growing direction. The line-profile in Fig. 3c reveals that the variation of electrostatic force has the same oscillation period as the surface elevation with a lag. In a typical cycle length, we can get the maximum value of the surface elevation first followed by the maximum of electrostatic field along the heteroarrays growing direction. The special structure of the Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays determines its excellent H2S sensing performance at room temperature. The I-V curves of a typical sensor in air exhibit obvious nonlinear characteristics at room temperature, indicating the presence of heterointerface barrier (Fig. 4a). Notably, the current in air is in the range of 10−7 A, which is low and enhances the sensitivity of the sensor26. The conductivity increased obviously when the sensor was exposed to 10 ppm H2S in air at 25 °C, while the plot of current (I) as a function of bias voltage (V) became a linear relation. It can be observed in the Fig. 4b that the sensor has a wide detection range for H2S from 0.1 to 80 ppm at room temperature. The response increases linearly with increasing H2S concentration between 0.1 and 80 ppm. Above 80 ppm, the response has no significant change, indicating that the response becomes saturated. The sensitivity of the sensor to H2S at 25 °C is about 180. Notably, the sensor has reasonable response (Response = 11.2) to 0.1 ppm H2S in air at 25 °C, which means the H2S detection limit of the sensor can reach as low as sub-ppm at room temperature. Figure 4c shows the dynamic response of the sensor to 20 ppm H2S in air at 25 °C. During exposure to H2S gas, the response increased and then reached saturation in about 200 s. Similarly, the response reduced as soon as the gas was turned off, and the sensor restored to its original Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
Figure 4. The performance of typical sensor based on the Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays. (a) I-V curves of the sensor in air and 10 ppm H2S atmosphere (the current in air was magnified 20 times). (b) The H2S concentration dependence of the sensor. (c) Dynamic response of the sensor to 20 ppm H2S in air. (d) The temperature dependence of the sensor to 50 ppm H2S in air. All the data in (a), (b) and (c) were recorded at 25 °C. (e) The response of sensor to 20 ppm H2S versus the storing time for 1, 10 and 20 days at 15 °C. (f) The response of sensor to 200 ppm NH3, H2, C7H8, C3H6O, HCHO and 1 ppm H2S in air at working temperature of 15 °C.
state in 230 s. The response between −30 and 30 °C to 50 ppm H2S is shown in Fig. 4d. It demonstrates that the sensor has high response to 50 ppm H2S below room temperature, even as low as −30 °C (response = 663.2). The sensor response increased linearly with the increasing working temperature from −20 to 30 °C. The stability is highly crucial in widening the application fields of the nanostructure materials, it is also one of the most important characteristics for sensors. The response of sensor versus the storing time is shown in Fig. 4e. After the first measurement, the sensor was stored in dry air for subsequent sensing stability tests. A series of tests were carried out at the times of 1, 10 and 20 days after the device fabrication, with a 20 ppm H2S at a working temperature of 15 °C. It was found that very small variations were detected in the responses of the sensor, showing that the sensor exhibited good long-term stability after the initial storage duration. The Cu2O and Co3O4 show excellent chemical stability in atmosphere, for which the sensors have good stability. We explored the selective detection of NH3, H2, toluene (C7H8), acetone (C3H6O) and methanol (HCHO) with the sensor, and the sensitivities are illustrated in Fig. 4f. At the exposed concentration of 200 ppm at 15 °C, the response is 18%, corresponding to NH3, which is 2 times lower when compared to H2S at 1 ppm. As for H2, C7H8, C3H6O and HCHO, there is no significant response signal when the exposed concentrations were 200 ppm, suggesting that our sensor is sensitive to H2S compared to the above gases.
The thickness of the ultra-thin layer is about 300 nm, in which the convection and diffusion of ions are limited. That means the electromigration of ions from anode to cathode is the main activity reserved in the ultra-thin layer. Therefore, the ions can be deposited in situ and assembled to be ordered nanostructures27. The growth velocity is closely related to the concentration of electrolyte and the applied potential. The periodical pattern is caused by the variation of ion concentration near the growth interface lagging behind the variation of electrode potential28. In this deposition process, the Cu2+ and Co2+ ions were driven to the growth interface persistently by the electric field, where they were co-deposited. As shown in Fig. 5, when the potential is low, the ions can migrate to the growth interface in time as the deposition process is relatively slow. Therefore, the deposit are easy to accumulate, which means the nanojoint of the heteroarrays formed at this time. In contrast, the deposition process is relatively fast when the potential is high. However, the electromigration velocity of ions increased faintly, which means the supply of ions could not meet the consumption at the growth interface. Hence, the deposit are not easy to accumulate, leading to the formation of nanowires. Both lower and upper part of applied semi-sine potential can realizes the co-deposit of Cu2O and Co3O4. However, their deposition behaviour are not identical due to the different concentration of Cu2+ (60 mM) and Co2+ (30 mM) ions. At the lower part of the potential, the Cu2+ and Co2+ ions could migrate to the growth interface in time, and they were co-deposited to be a composite of Cu2O and Co3O4. Meanwhile, the growth at the upper part of the potential is relatively fast, the deposit stretch forward rapidly. But only Cu2+ could migrate to the growth interface to a certain extent for the relatively large concentration. That means the deposition of Co3O4 is Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
Figure 5. Schematic diagrams showing the periodic deposition process. The growth process at the lower and upper part of the semi-sine wave potential are corresponding to the deposition of nanojoint and nanowire respectively.
Figure 6. The schematic diagram of Cu2O and Co3O4 distribution across the longitudinal section. The Cu2O is distributed throughout the whole sample, but the Co3O4 is heterogeneous. interrupted because of the relatively low concentration, as shown in Fig. 6. Hence, pure Cu2O nanostructure must appeared as a small section of nanowire. And the structure information shown in Fig. 2 confirm this point. In conclusion, we may declare that the Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays are composed by alternately
Figure 7. The dependence of the I-V curves’ shape on the H2S concentration. (a) I-V curve of sensor in air. Correspondingly, the I-V curves of sensor in 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm are presented in (b), (c) and (d). The shape of I-V curves changed significantly when the sensor exposed in different levels of H2S atmosphere. All the data were recorded at 25 °C.
distributed Cu2O and composite of Cu2O and Co3O4. When the charge redistribution in the Cu2O-Cu2O/Co3O4 composite heterointerface reaches equilibrium, a built-in electric field is induced29. However, the heterointerfaces on both sides of the pure Cu2O nanostructure are different. Along with the growth direction, the composite-Cu2O heterointerface formed first at the voltage rise process. During this period, the supply of Co2+ was least because of the lagging electromigration velocity. Hence, the heterointerface is relatively clear. Instead, the Cu2O-composite heterointerface formed subsequently at the voltage decrease process, while the supply of Co2+ increased gradually. Hence, the Co3O4 content gradually increase in the deposit leading to an unsharp heterointerface. Thus, the strongest electrostatic field distributed in the composite-Cu2O heterointerface, rather than the middle position of nanowire. The electrostatic force distribution along with the variation of height shown in Fig. 3c is the direct evidence. The I-V curve of the typical sensor in air exhibits obvious nonlinear characteristics at room temperature, as shown in Fig. 7a, indicating the presence of heterointerface. The investigation shown that the conductivity of the sensor increased gradually as the H2S concentration increases from 1 to 20 ppm. When the sensor exposed to 1 ppm H2S in air (Fig. 7b), the conductivity increased by about 60%, and the I-V curve remained the nonlinear characteristics. Linear relationship between I and V emerged when it was exposed to 10 ppm H2S (Fig. 7c), while the conductivity continued to increase as high as two orders of magnitude. And in 20 ppm H2S atmosphere (Fig. 7d), a standard linear relationship of I and V formed, and the conductivity is more than double that in 10 ppm H2S atmosphere. The change of I-V relationship (from a nonlinear to a linear character) means a variation of carriers’ transport. The details of dynamic responses of the sensor to H2S confirm this point. Figure 8 shows a continuous test without recoveries to 10–100 ppm H2S concentration range at 25 °C. Upon exposure to different concentrations of H2S, the response increased fast, and then reached saturation rapidly. The data exhibit that during the response growth process a two-stage response can be observed as the frontal curve of the response peak exhibits two distinguished slopes before reaching the plateau region. The inflection point at each growth process are marked by blue arrows. The H2S sensors based on the Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays display excellent response at and below room temperature, even at −30 °C. We believe that both desorption of oxygen and generation of metallic Cu2S responsible for the excellent properties. Interaction of H2S with the oxide surface is determined by two factors. First, hydrogen sulfide is a strong reducing agent: the value of the ionization potential of the H2S molecule is 4.10 eV. Secondly, heterolytic break of the S-H bond is quite easy, especially in the formation of new donor–acceptor bonds30. The important augmentation of the sensor signal is possible, if the interaction of high-resistance oxide with hydrogen sulfide results in reversible formation of a highly conducting sulfide31,32. In the case of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays significant resistance change in the presence of H2S Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
Figure 8. Gas responses as a function of H2S concentration of sensor at 25 °C. The continuous gas response at each step of H2S gas concentration. The data exhibit an inflection point at each growth process of response, as marked by blue arrows.
should be attributed to the formation of metallic Cu2S (Eq. 1). The products after sensing test were characterized by XPS for further confirming the formation of Cu2S, as the Fig. S2 shown. The sample were kept in 20 ppm H2S atmosphere in sealed box until XPS test. Fig. S2 (a) and (b) shows the high resolution Cu 2p and S 2p spectra of the CuxS sulfurized after the sensing test, respectively. Fig. S2a presents two peaks at 932.4 and 952.2 eV corresponding to Cu 2p3/2 and Cu 2p1/2, respectively. The binding energies of the S 2p3/2 and S 2p1/2 peaks are 161.4 and 162.5 eV, respectively (Fig. S2b). These binding energies (BEs) are consistent with those previously reported for Cu and S in Cu2S33,34, confirming the chemical composition of Cu2S. Cu2O + H2 S(gas) = Cu2S + H2 O(gas)
The Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarray is a multi-barrier system (as shown in Fig. 3c), where carriers transport through tunneling. However, the heterointerface barrier is sensitive to the carrier concentration, thus the tunneling modulation requires only a low level change of carrier concentration35. The tunneling modulation process is very rapid, even at and below room temperature27. When the sensor is exposed to H2S, part of the absorbed oxygen on the surface of Cu2O and Co3O4 are removed as the initial reaction mechanism, leaving oxygen-bound electrons in the surface (Eq. 2). As a result, the hole concentrations of p-type Cu2O and p-type Co3O4 decrease leading to a reduction of the carrier diffusion between Cu2O and Co3O4, which means an weaken of interface barrier. Finally, carriers have a relatively large probability of crossing the interface barrier. Subsequently, the remaining H2S continues to attach on to the surface of Cu2O, which give rise to the generation of Cu2S. At the critical H2S concentration (about 10 ppm in this case, as shown in Fig. 7c), the transformation of highly resistive Cu2O into metallic Cu2S can result in formation of conductance channels on the surface of the nanoarrays that leads to a drastic increase of the conductance. Therefore, at 10 ppm H2S atmosphere the signal of the sensor increases rapidly (a 102-fold increase of current), and continues to increase as more parallel conductance channels are generated. This rapid increase in conductivity with increasing H2S pressure will then taper off as each conductance channel that is created becomes less important, resulting in a sigmoidal response curve presented in Fig. 4b. The two-stage response of sensor to H2S (Fig. 8) corresponding to the first stage of surface oxygen desorption and the second stage of Cu2S generation. When the sensor exposed in high H2S atmosphere, the number and the thickness of Cu2S conduct channel obvious increased due to the ample H2S supply. However the kinetics of converting copper sulfide to copper oxide is generally slow, so the recovering time will obviously increase. The modulation of heterojunction barrier achieved in Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays is maximized. Compared with the always present interface barrier in previous reported CuO/Cu2O based heterostructure, the barrier can hide itself temporarily in Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarray when it exposed to H2S. The heterojunction barrier can be considered as a switch in galvanic circle of sensor (in air, the barrier is high, the carriers transport is difficult, the switch is off; in gas, the barrier is disappeared, the carriers transport is unobstructed, the switch is on). It is important to mention that the Cu2S conductance channel is throughout the nanoarrays without inserted heterojunction barriers. This advantage arises from the continuous distribution of Cu2O throughout the whole heteroarrays. This is the reason why our sensors have higher conductivity than others in the same conditions. Considering the above-mentioned factors, both the hidden heterojunction barrier and the Cu2S conductance channel responsible for the enhancement sensitivity at ultra-low temperature. In summary, we have investigated both structure and H2S sensitivity of the Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays prepared by 2D electrodeposition technique. The detailed study of heteroarrays verifies that they are multi-barrier system with uniform cycle length and long-range order in millimeter scale. A parametric study was designed in order to understand the impact of the H2S concentration and temperature on the response signal. We found that the heteroarrays exhibit high sensitivity to H2S at and below room temperature, even as low as −3 0 °C. The detection limit can reach as low as sub-ppm at room temperature. The data confirm that both desorption of Scientific Reports | 7:43887 | DOI: 10.1038/srep43887
www.nature.com/scientificreports/ oxygen and generation of metallic Cu2S are responsible for the excellent sensitivity, and the generation of Cu2S conductance channel makes an important contribution to the signal enhance between 10 ppm and 80 ppm. The study provides a possibility to the facile prepared of gas sensor with high sensitivity at and below room temperature and a new direction of designing materials for ultra-low temperature gas sensing.
Copper nitrate hydrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O, 99.9%), cobalt nitrate hexahydrate (Co(NO3)2·6H2O, 99.99%), nitric acid (HNO3, analytical-regent grade) were purchased from Aladdin. The solution was prepared with deionized water. All chemicals were used in the experiments without further purication. The Cu2O/Co3O4 heterostructures were synthesized by an electrochemical deposition system in an ultra-thin electrolyte liquid layer. In a typical procedure, 50 mL of nitric acid solution (pH = 4.0) was first prepared, then 0.7248 g Cu(NO3)2 and 0.4365 g Co(NO3)2 were added into nitric acid solution. The silicon used in the experiment requires pre-processing, its surface was cleaned and oxidized to form an insulating SiO2 layer. First, the pre-treated silicon substrate (20 × 20 mm2) was placed onto a Peltier element on the bottom of growth chamber, and two parallel copper electrodes (30 μm thick, 99.99%) were put on the substrate separated by a distance of 6 mm. Then 20 μL prepared solution was dropped on the substrate between two electrodes. Afterwards, a cover glass was put on two electrodes carefully to make the space between cover glass and silicon substrate filled of electrolyte. By freezing the electrolyte at −4.5 °C, an ultra-thin ice layer (about 30 μm thick) could be formed between the silicon substrate and cover glass. Due to the partitioning effect, two ultra-thin liquid layer of concentrated electrolyte were formed between the ice and the silicon substrate as well as the ice and the cover glass separately. The thickness of the electrolyte layer is about 300 nm. Eventually, the deposition process was carried out by applying a 0.8 Hz semi-sine wave with amplitude varied from 0.5 to 1.5 V across the electrodes. The morphology, nanostructure and interface electric field of Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, JEOL JSM-6700F), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEM-2010F) and scanning probe microscope (SPM, MicroNano D5A). The surface elemental composition was checked with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ESCALAB MKII, VG). The as-synthesized Cu2O/Co3O4 nano/microstructure heteroarrays were used as the sensing materials. The process of fabricating the sensor was described in detail in our previous work10. The gas-sensing properties to various concentrations of H2S were mearsured using a custom-made gas sensing system. The gas sensitivity is defined as the slope between gas response and gas concentration, and the response =(Ig/Ia) × 100, where Ia is the initial current in the air, and Ig is the current measured in the presence of H2S. The response time was defined as the time to reach 90% change in current after injecting H2S, and the recovery time was defined as the time needed for the sensor to return to 90% change in current upon removing H2S.
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This work was funded by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11404158, 51431004, 11274151, 11304139, 11674144), Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Nos. BS2014CL014, BS2015CL003, ZR2014JL005, JQ201602, J16LJ04), PhD Start-up Fund of Natural Science Foundation of Linyi University (Nos. LYDX2014BS007, LYDX2014BS008).
P.H.Z. conceived and designed the experiments; G.L.C. and C.M.S. performed the experiments; X.L.W., J.F.L. and G.L.C. interpreted the results. P.H.Z., G.L.C. and L.C. wrote the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.