May 10, 2017 - ... University, Ethiopia. Received 20 March, 2017; Accepted 18 April, 2017 ... gender, salary, academic rank, number of years in the profession ...
Abstract: The study was conducted on cattle at Hirna municipal abattoir from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hirna town. The objective of the study was to ...
Jun 28, 2018 - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of ... chemical agents have different mechanisms of antimicrobial action, ... for the cosmetic field, microbiological safety, where a presentation of cosmetic .... in the SCC
Oct 28, 2016 - agents delivered only under medical prescription are tested for safety, efficacy, and liability on .... their usage is still legal or where there is a juridical void concerning their use, and sold illegally ...... sante.fr/content/down
Mar 1, 2009 - Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 .... Regarding religion, Orthodox Christian.
Little is known about predictors of smoking in any Ethiopian setting. Objectives: The .... being a follower of Islam rather than an Orthodox or other Christian (6.6% ...
Construction of micro dams to harvest the available surface water resources of dry land area is inevitable. Elbahi micro-dam is located near to Jigjiga town in Ethiopia Somali Regional state; it was constructed from 1986-1993 with multi-pur
Sep 15, 2017 - Abstract: Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro) are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C) and oligo-elements such as co
Mar 3, 2016 - Nurses need to be effectively prepared to deal with the complexity of providing ethically based personalized spiritual care in an increasingly diverse society. Keywords: .... Similarly, interviews with German chronically ill patients (n
10,586 (68.9). 7033(44.8) ..... Lassi ZS, Salam RA, Das JK, Bhutta ZA. Essential ... Navodaya AR, Chauhan BG: Inequality in utilization of maternal health care.
Apr 1, 2018 - consumed but, in general, rice water is discarded in many food preparation procedures worldwide. ..... Quimica S.L., Lisbon, Portugal) . .... significantly higher in brown rice than in white rice, a fact which also can prevent the r
derivatives for skin and hair care. Mild processing preserves amino acid integrity. WHEAT PROTEINS HYDROLYSATES. Kelyamin. Wheat amino acids & peptides for hair care. ... A protein derivative for cosmetics should above all stabilize foam building ...
Apr 22, 2015 - The calculated sample size was 1832 assuming anemia prevalence of. 21% at 95% confidence ... Structured food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) modified from the Helen Keller Interna- tional FFQ that was used previously in Ethiopia [22, 23,
viscera from 655 sheep and 632 goats from 4 abattoirs in eastern Ethiopia. .... production systems are broadly characterized as low input, mixed crop-livestock, ...... albendazole (Exiptol, ERFAR Pharmaceutical Laboratories) and tetramisole.
May 1, 2018 - correct stage of maturity, etc.). .... International Plant Names Indexâ are reliable sources of current taxonomic data. ...... sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] ...
Feb 14, 2014 - Oriflame Skin Research Institute, MÃ¤ster Samuelsgatan 56, 11121 Stockholm, Sweden;. E-Mails: Tamara. ... [email protected] (A.M.); [email protected] (A.L.). 2. Oriflame R&D, Bray .... Claudin-1 has been shown to be absolutely ess
REQUIREMENTS OF. BABY PRODUCTS. â¢ From the foregoing account it appears that most skin problems in babies occur because of wrapping of them in tightly fitting garments providing warm and stagnant environment for growth bacteria. â¢ From the functi
Sep 30, 2016 - 358 000 maternal deaths worldwide, developing countries accounted for 99% (355 000). Nearly three fifths of the maternal deaths (204 000).
In rural areas of the Ethiopian highlands, tree planting on communal land has been increasing because of active implementation of ... considerable excess labor exists in the dry season in northern ... IJ Peasant Association (PA) in a village is calle
Hawassa University-NORAD Project for the financial support. References. 1. Bibha Simkhada, Edwin R. Van Teijlingen,. Maureen Porter & Padam Simkhada .
Memria â a national program of Derg administration. Abas Mohamed Shami, a key informant in .... 2006) species habitat modeling software. The predictor variables included the distance .... timber could a profitable and successful business venture (Z
2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University,. Mekelle .... pants, how to follow ethical procedures and general in- formation on ...
Mar 9, 2017 - Received: January 25, 2017; Accepted: February 18, 2017; ... Ethiopian women with live birth received at least four visits during the ... government documents, routinely collected data, searching ... An important barrier is the inabilit
Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study Arebu I. Bilal 1 , Zelalem Tilahun 1 , Tariku Shimels 2, *, Yewubdar B. Gelan 3 and Ebrahim D. Osman 4 1 2 3 4
Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; [email protected] (A.I.B.); [email protected] (Z.T.) Medical Logistics and Pharmaceutical Services Coordination, Federal Police Commission Health Service Directorate, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; [email protected] Department of Pharmacy, Jigjiga Health Sciences College, Jigjiga, Ethiopia; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +251-912-47-12-23
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca Received: 20 August 2016; Accepted: 24 November 2016; Published: 1 December 2016
Abstract: The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%), shampoos and conditioners (35%), and deodorants and perfumes (29%). Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44%) of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area. Keywords: cosmetics; cosmetic types; Ethiopia; Jigjiga town; traditional herbal cosmetics
1. Introduction Cosmetics are defined as substances or preparations intended to be applied on various external parts of the human body with the purpose of cleaning, perfuming, changing appearance, correcting body odors, protecting or keeping those body parts in good condition . These substances include perfumes, skin creams, lotions, deodorants, makeup, hair preparations, and others [2,3]. Wearing cosmetics is one of the most common human behaviors and is present across different cultures . In modern societies, the use of cosmetics by females to alter facial appearance is nearly universal . Studies indicate that female faces have greater facial contrast than male faces and there is a positive relationship between facial contrast and facial attractiveness . Moreover, perceptions of attractiveness increase when cosmetics are applied, and when wearing cosmetics, females provide higher estimates of their own attractiveness [7,8]. Applying cosmetics also increases perceptions of Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040040
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
2 of 10
traits related to attractiveness, with wearers perceived as healthier and from a higher socioeconomic background . Cosmetics can be used to mark the culture, class, religion, or other social group to which a person belongs. They can also be used to indicate status, rank, or wealth within a group, as well as other personal information, such as age, gender, or reproductive status . Studies have shown that cosmetic use seems to be linked with ages greater than 18 years , female gender , nature of career, and also the geographical factors where people are living . Cosmetics use also has psychological implications such as decreasing anxiety and increasing self-confidence . Scholars have also used social comparison and self-discrepancy theories to explain people’s motivations for cosmetics usage. In social comparison theory, people are concerned with their own physical appearance and compare themselves to others or with media images which may lead to negative self-perceptions and lowered self-esteem. In such instances, individuals are then motivated to engage in cosmetics use . Self-discrepancies occur when there is a mismatch, or inconsistency, between aspects of the self . Discrepancies between the attractiveness of the actual and the ideal self can lead to lower body image and lower self-esteem . People may apply cosmetics to close the gap between their actual and their ideal selves. The value of the global cosmetics industry reached USD 465 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach USD 675 billion by 2020 . Though cosmetics usage is an increasing trend across the globe, some users are not very concerned about the implications of cosmetics to their body health including such factors as skin and physical outlook. This condition, coupled with the lack of proper channels of communication for reporting cosmetic related adverse effects and product modification, makes cosmetic products rank among the top causes of toxic exposure [10,17–19]. To compensate for this, cosmetics consumers are strongly encouraged to adhere to the following safety tips: reading labels, following all directions, heeding all warnings, washing hands before using the product, not sharing makeup, keeping the containers clean and tightly closed when not in use and protecting them from temperature extremes, and throwing away cosmetics if there are changes in color or smell . Documenting cosmetic utilization practices is expected to have a significant role in increasing public awareness and proper utilization among community members. Therefore, this study was done to assess the cosmetic utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. 2. Methods 2.1. Study Setting and Design A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia, from May to June 2014. Jigjiga town is the capital town of the Somalia National Regional State of Ethiopia. The town has ten kebeles (the smallest administrative units). 2.2. Study Population Among the ten kebeles found in the town, four of them were selected via simple random sampling. The number of households (HHs) included from each selected kebele was determined based on the proportion of the population in the kebeles. The sample of HHs in each kebele was identified using systematic random sampling techniques where every third HH was taken until the required size was met in each kebele. One eligible adult HH member was randomly selected from each household. Adults who were aged 18 or older, lived in the town for at least six months prior to the data collection, and gave informed consent were included in the study. 2.3. Variables Potential associated factors for the outcome measure were: socio-demographic variables, duration and frequency of use, type and number of cosmetics used, cosmetics selection criteria, concomitant use of herbal remedies, and purpose of use and way of administration (see Supplementary materials for the full questionnaire).
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
3 of 10
2.4. Data Source and Collection Procedure In this study, participants were interviewed in Ethiopia since previous research has found that online samples are not representative of populations in developing countries . A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into the local language. One eligible adult was randomly selected from each household. Data was collected by four trained recruits who speak the local language fluently and who have health science backgrounds. The whole data collection process was supervised by the principal investigators. 2.5. Sample Size Calculation A single population proportion formula was used to calculate the minimum sample size required for the study. Since there was no prior community based study that showed the prevalence of cosmetics use in the previous two weeks, we took the proportion to be 50%, standard normal deviation of 1.96 (at 95% confidence interval), and 4% degree of freedom. The final sample size was 601. 2.6. Operational Definitions Traditional herbal cosmetics refer to homemade cosmetics prepared from indigenous herbs in the study area. On the other hand, modern cosmetics refer to those manufactured, packaged and labeled by international or national companies and commercially available in local markets. 2.7. Ethical Consideration The Institutional Ethical Review Board of the School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University gave permission to conduct the survey. Discussions about the aim and purpose of the survey were undertaken with the Jigjiga Woreda Health Office and local community leaders, and permission was obtained accordingly. Finally, verbal consent was obtained from each study participant before conducting the interview. 2.8. Data Entry and Analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the nature and frequency of cosmetic use. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate cosmetic utilization associated factors. Variables with p < 0.20 within the bivariate analyses were included in the multivariate logistic model. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20 was used for the analysis. Statistical significance was determined at p values of ≤0.05. 3. Results 3.1. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents From the total 601 HHs approached for the study, only 559 were available and successfully interviewed which gives a response rate of 93%. The mean age of the respondents was 21.8 years (SD ± 2.7) and more than half of them (56%) were in the age group of 18–20 years. Four hundred twenty-four (76%) were female and 477 (85%) were Somali by ethnicity. Four hundred thirty-seven (78%) of the respondents were single. More than half (53%) had completed secondary school education. Two thirds (66%) of the participants were students and 265 (47%) participants earn an average monthly income of below 1000 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (Table 1).
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
4 of 10
Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents in Jigjiga town, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia; June 2014 (n = 559). n (%)
18–20 21–30 ≥31
310 (56) 219 (39) 30 (5)
135(24) 424 (76)
Muslim Orthodox Others *
516 (92) 36 (7) 7 (1)
Somali Oromo Amhara Gurage
477 (85) 30 (5) 44 (8) 8 (2)
437 (78) 122 (22)
Illiterate Primary school Secondary School College and University
3.2. Cosmetic Utilization Status Of the 559 study participants, 521 (93%) used cosmetics in the past two weeks. Among these, 280 (54%) of the users reported that they use it for “cleansing” purposes. The most commonly used products were “body creams and lotions”, “shampoos and conditioners”, and “deodorants and perfumes” as cited by 355 (68%), 182 (35%), and 153 (29%) of the users, respectively. Seventy percent of the participants claimed that “quality” is their main selection criterion. Among the quality indicators mentioned by the users were country of production (209 participants, 40%), media advertisement (144 participants, 28%), and popularity (80 participants, 15%). From the users who claimed county of production as an indicator of quality, 121 (58%) showed preference for cosmetics produced in India. The majority of the respondents (324 participants, 62%) used cosmetics products on a daily basis, and 387 (74%) of them used their cosmetics products more than once a day. Three hundred fifty-three (68%) of the respondents bought their cosmetics products from supermarkets and only 40 (8%) purchased them from pharmacies or drug shops. Four hundred sixty-two (89%) of the respondents had a habit of reading labels written on cosmetics products, of whom the majority (39%) read the expiry date and only 41 (6%) read the special remarks. Three hundred forty-five (75%) of the respondents reported that they always read labels when purchasing a product (Table 2).
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
5 of 10
Table 2. Cosmetics utilization practices among respondents in Jigjiga town, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia; June 2014 (n = 559). Variable Category and Options
Frequency n (%)
Cosmetics use in the past two weeks Yes No
521(93) 38 (7)
Purpose of use (n = 521) Cleansing Beautification Protection Medication Whitening Anti-aging Hair coloring
Main criterion for selection Quality of the product Affordability of the price Easily accessible in the market
392 (75) 94 (18) 35 (7)
Quality indicators Country of production Advertised on media Most of the people use Brand of the product High price of the product
209 (40) 144 (28) 80 (15) 51 (10) 37 (7)
Country of origin (n = 209) Indian Western Chinese Local
121 (58) 46 (22) 24 (11) 18 (9)
Frequency of use (general) (n = 521) Daily For special occasions Sometimes
324 (62) 109 (21) 88 (17)
Frequency of use (daily) (n = 521) Once Twice Three times More than three times
134 (25.7) 196 (37.6) 144 (27.7) 47 (9)
Common source Supermarket Shop Pharmacy or drug shop
353 (68) 128 (24) 40 (8)
Read cosmetics related information Yes No
462 (89) 59 (11)
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
6 of 10
Table 2. Cont. Variable Category and Options
Frequency n (%)
If yes, type of information read Brand name Expiry date Ingredients Use instruction Special remarks
164 (22) 287 (39) 189 (26) 53 (7) 41 (6)
If yes, when do you read information Always when purchasing a product Only when purchasing a product for the first time When observing some kind of side effect or effectiveness of the product declined
345 (75) 93 (20) 25 (5)
Which instruction of use do you think is one should strictly follow * Washing your hands and the respective body part before application of cosmetics Cleansing body parts before sleeping to remove cosmetics Avoiding exposure to sun light for a lengthy period
420 (80.7) 119 (22.9) 61 (11.7)
* More than one option is possible.
3.3. Factors Associated with Cosmetics Utilization The logistic regression analysis revealed that certain socio-demographic variables have association with the utilization of a cosmetics product. Being single increased the odds of cosmetics utilization four times as compared with those married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.91–11.34)). Educational status has shown an important association with cosmetics utilization in that those with primary education were less likely to be cosmetic users as compared to those who completed college and university (AOR = 0.24; 95% CI (0.06–0.84)). On the other hand, being self-employed was found to be negatively associated with the use of any type of cosmetics (AOR = 0.14; 95% CI (0.04–0.55)). Other variables like gender and average monthly income did not show significant association with cosmetics utilization (Table 3). Table 3. Factors associated with cosmetics utilization among respondents in Jigjiga town, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia; June 2014 (n = 559, 95% confidence interval (CI)). COR = crude odd ratio. AOR = adjusted odds ratio. Utilization Status
0.77 (0.37–1.59) 1.00 (reference)
0.92 (0.38–2.21) 1.00 (reference)
* 4.06 (2.07–7.94) 1.00 (reference)
* 4.66 (1.91–11.34) 1.00 (reference)
Illiterate Primary School Secondary School College and University
* Significant at p ≤ 0.05 multivariate logistic regression.
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
7 of 10
3.4. Factors Associated with Traditional Herbal Cosmetics Use Two hundred forty-seven (44%) of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. Certain socio-demographic variables were associated with the use of traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics usage was observed in the age group of 18–20 years (AOR = 2.67; 95% CI (1.03–6.92)). In contrast, male gender (AOR = 0.63; 95% CI (0.40–0.99)), being a housewife (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI (0.17–0.91)), and being self-employed (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI (0.12–0.91)) were found to be negative predictors of traditional herbal cosmetics utilization while other variables such as educational status and average monthly income did not show any significant association (Table 4). Table 4. Factors associated with traditional herbal cosmetics use among respondents in Jigjiga town, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia; June 2014 (n = 559, 95% CI). Use Status
* Significant at p ≤ 0.05 multivariate logistic regression.
4. Discussion Half of the cosmetics users in this study reported that they utilize cosmetics for “cleansing” purposes. This might be to cope with the dust and excessive sweating due to the hot and windy environment. Nevertheless, other studies have documented that “feeling beautiful” and “improved self-confidence” were among the common reasons for cosmetics use [7,8,22]. “Body creams and lotions” and “shampoos and conditioners” were reported to be the top utilized cosmetics types in the study area. This is expected as cleansing and moisturizing the face are procedures which generally require performance multiple times per day. The other possible explanation for why “body creams and lotions” and “shampoos and conditioners” were reported as the top utilized cosmetics is that they are utilized by both genders. Furthermore, “body creams and lotions” are among the top utilized cosmetics as most of the subjects belong to an age group generally troubled by problems associated with acne prone skin. Findings across the country have also mentioned that these products were the most utilized [23,24]. In contrast, lipsticks, mascara, and liners were the most commonly used among university students in Iran . More than 85% of the respondents in this study reported that they read information from containers of cosmetics products. Lesser figures of a similar practice were reported in other studies done
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
8 of 10
by Meharie et.al and Dibaba et.al in Ethiopia [23,24]. Thirty-nine percent of the users read information on expiry dates, followed by those who read information on ingredients of the product (26%) and brand name (22%). In contrast, a report in Mekelle University of Ethiopia revealed that respondents gave greater attention to instructions for use, ingredient content, and brand names . This might initiate a need for community-based awareness-creation on reading the label of cosmetics properly. The majority of the respondents in our study responded that they use “quality” as criterion for selecting a cosmetic product. However, most of these groups agreed that their common measure of quality is by “the country of production” and “advertisement on media”. Nevertheless, a study in India indicated that factors like health care recommendations, quality, and fragrance got greater importance for selection of cosmetic products . The fact that the majority of cosmetics users in this study reported that they prefer Indian products might be because most Indian skin care products are perceived to be derived from herbal and spicy sources . Female gender increases the odds of cosmetics use. This may be due to the fact that cosmetic application increases facial contrast which is positively related with attractiveness and femininity . Similarly, being single and young increased the odds of cosmetics use in the study area. Similar findings were also reported elsewhere [5,25–28]. The drives commonly enumerated for using cosmetics include feeling clean and attractive, increasing sexual stamina, feeling good and sexually active, as well as countering sexual risks [28–30]. Several studies have found that using cosmetics makes women appear healthier, more attractive, and more feminine [7–9,26,30]. Furthermore, cosmetic use may also be linked to success in the work place. Beautiful people of both sexes tend to have a higher earning potential than those who are below-average or average looking [5,8,9,12,22,31,32]. This can also be further explained by self-discrepancy and social comparison theories. Self-discrepancy increases among young adults which can lead to motivations for cosmetics usage . Besides, cosmetics use may be influenced by comparisons made both with real people and with media images. Young adults are more susceptible to the effects of media and they often compare themselves with the idealized images presented in advertising . People who were self-employed were found to be less likely to use both modern cosmetics and traditional herbal cosmetics as compared to government workers and the unemployed. Whereas, income level was not important to determine the practice of cosmetics use among the study population, other factors such as leisure time, work behavior, and peer influence might have additive effects in different groups (self-employed vs. government workers or unemployed). On the other hand, being a housewife was negatively associated with traditional herbal cosmetic use. This might be because housewives spend most of their time at home caring for their children. The fact that traditional herbal cosmetics are not available readymade and require more time for preparation may contribute to their low utilization among housewives. This study included a sufficient sample size which was composed of a variety of socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Being at a community level, the results showed the practices of cosmetics use in the region and may serve as a baseline for future studies. Nonetheless, the lack of information on the amount of money spent on the cosmetics products was one of the limitations of this study. 5. Conclusions Being young, female, and single increased the use of cosmetics in the study area which might be related to competition for mates and status in society. Advertisements on media, country of production, and price were used for determining quality of the cosmetics products. Reading labels was found to be high, though the number of people who read instruction for use and special remarks was found to be low. Cosmetics sellers should provide the relevant information to consumers pertaining to application instructions and cautions. In addition, there needs to be a community-based awareness-creation program like health education by the Woreda Health Office to increase consumers’ awareness on appropriate cosmetics use.
Cosmetics 2016, 3, 40
9 of 10
Acknowledgments: Our appreciation goes to the people of Jigjiga town for their positive response, for sharing their valuable knowledge and time, as well as for their tremendous generosity and hospitality. In addition, the authors would like to acknowledge the data collectors for their tireless efforts during the data collection process. Author Contributions: Arebu I. Bilal, Ebrahim D. Osman, and Zelalem Tilahun coordinated the data collection; performed data entry and analysis; and wrote the draft manuscript. Arebu I. Bilal, Tariku Shimels, and Yewubdar B. Gelan were involved in the design and development of the data collection instrument and corrected the manuscript writing. All of the authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript: AOR COR ETB HHs SD SPSS
Adjusted Odds Ratio Crude Odds Ratio Ethiopian Birr Households Standard Deviation Statistical Package for Social Sciences
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
Ethiopian Food, Medicine and Healthcare Administration and Control Authority. Cosmetics and Sanitary Items Directive No. 24; Ethiopian Food, Medicine and Healthcare Administration and Control Authority: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Available online: http://www.fmhaca.gov.et/documents/Cosmetics%20and% 20Sanitary%20Items%20Directive.pdf (accessed on 28 November 2016). Martin, M. Cosmetics and their relation to drugs. In Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology; James, S., James, G., Eds.; Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 2002; Volume 2, pp. 649–657. Clarence, R. Cosmetics. In The World Book Encyclopedia; Fetzer, S., Ed.; World Book Inc.: Chicago, IL, USA, 1994; Volume 4, pp. 1075–1076. Jablonski, N.G. Skin: A Natural History; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2006. Etcoff, N. Survival of the Prettiest; Doubleday: New York, NY, USA, 1999. Russell, R. Why Cosmetics Work. In The Science of Social Vision; Adams, R.B., Ambady, N., Nakayama, K., Shimojo, S., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2010; pp. 186–204. Cash, T.F.; Dawson, K.; Davis, P.; Bowen, M.; Galumbeck, C. Effects of cosmetics use on the physical attractiveness and body image of American college women. J. Soc. Psychol. 1989, 129, 349–355. [CrossRef] Etcoff, N.L.; Stock, S.; Haley, L.E.; Vickery, S.A.; House, D.M. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals. PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e25656. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Nash, R.; Fieldman, G.; Hussey, T.; Lévêque, J.L.; Pineau, P. Cosmetics: They influence more than Caucasian female facial attractiveness. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 2006, 36, 493–504. [CrossRef] Mansor, N.; Ali, D.E.M.; Yaacob, M.R. Cosmetic Usage in Malaysia: Understanding of the Major Determinants Affecting the Users. Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci. 2010, 1, 273–281. Mansor, N. Career Women: The Need for Image Building. As a Culture at a Work Place. In Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Pacific Business Conference, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 10–12 April 2005. Korichi, R.; Pelle-De-Queral, D.; Gazano, G.; Aubert, L.V.M. Why women use makeup? Implication of psychological traits in makeup functions. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2008, 59, 127–137. [PubMed] Lennon, J.L.; Rudd, N.A.; Sloan, B.; Kim, J.S. Attitudes towards gender roles, self-esteem, and body image: Application of a model. Cloth. Text. Res. J. 1999, 17, 191–202. [CrossRef] Higgins, E.T. Self-Discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychol. Rev. 1987, 94, 319–340. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Jung, J.; Lennon, S.J.; Rudd, N.A. Self-schema or self-discrepancy? Which best explains body image? Cloth. Text. Res. J. 2001, 19, 171–184. [CrossRef] Research and Markets: Global Cosmetics Market 2015–2020. Available online: http://www.businesswire. com/news/home/20150727005524/en/Research-Markets-Global-Cosmetics-Market-2015-2020-Market (accessed on 18 November 2016).