high-impact journals, and has been a forceful contributor to public debates on conservation issues like rewilding. . As a faculty member at Berkeley and then Cornell, his undergraduate courses in vertebrate biology are the stuff of legend. On anot
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space should have been devoted to describing the experiments that led to this information. For example, a section in Chapter 46 (box 46-1) contains a synopsis of key experiments in cell cycle research that I found interesting and appropriate. Most of these special sections, however, contained a list of key terms or a discussion of a technique, and much of the book completely lacked such sections. I would advocate additional discussion of experimental approaches to show students the route (often a circuitous one) that led to our current understanding (or lack thereof). It is also very exciting for students to realize that we don’t yet have all the answers; drawing attention to “next steps in research” is one way to do this. The book contains a large number of tables of varying utility. Many are lists of the components of various structures and can be useful references (e.g., Sarcomere proteins and actin-binding proteins). Others contained highly specialized information that most students, and many instructors, are unlikely to make use of (e.g., integrin heterodimers and peroxin features). The reference lists at the end of the chapters were sometimes too short; interested, advanced students might appreciate more leads into the primary literature or, even better, links to some good web sites. Finally, the layout of the book deserves comment. I found the book aesthetically appealing—the size and placement of figures and overall design of the text pages was very well done. An especially nice feature was the way EMs or LMs were combined in the same figure with an interpretive diagram. This reinforced the important point—at times overlooked by students—that diagrams are in fact based on our interpretation of the available data. For example, in the chapter on mitosis, diagrams of the spindle at particular stages of mitosis are located right below a corresponding immunofluorescence micrograph of a cell at the same mitotic stage stained for microtubules, kinetochores, and DNA. Similarly, data from microtubule marking experiments are shown alongside an interpretive schematic, and EMs of cell junctions are shown alongside corresponding diagrams. A CD containing print and screen versions of all of the figures, both with and without labeling, is available. Given the central role of the micrographs, structures, and diagrams in the text, the CD will be an essential aid for teaching from this book. The CD also has 15 animations. The animations show molecules floating around on the screen, bumping into other molecules, changing shape, moving through channels, etc. If they were sped up and sound effects added, they would resemble a video game. Once I got used to them, I found them mesmerizing and watched several more than once. Each animation also has a still image with the floating molecules tied down and labeled, so you can open that file and keep track. Are the animations useful? In the case of figure 16.16, Nuclear Trafficking, the animation was a big help. The text Figure is dense with cargo, adaptors, GTPases, and the like, and is rather intimidating at first glance. The animation focused my attention on the individual steps and how one step leads to the next; it is thus an improvement over the still figure. On the CD I received, the animation “The Molecular Basis of CDK Regulation” was missing. In summary, this new book provides excellent cover-
age of cell biology. The book does not include sections on immunology/immunity, cancer, or development, leaving these topics for more specialized texts, which I personally find appropriate. It is not a biochemistry or molecular biology text. It leaves out some experimental details, but includes rich visual information. Teaching from the text will be a far better test of its utility than my perusal of various chapters. After all, students often struggle with material that instructors find clear and are likely to identify confusing points that are overlooked by those more familiar with the material. My bet is that students will enjoy this new book and appreciate the fact that it still fits in their backpack. Pat Wadsworth Department of Biology Morrill Science Center University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003
Crossing Membranes Protein Targeting, Transport and Translocation Edited by Ross E. Dalbey and Gunnar von Heijne London: Academic Press (2002). 360 pp. $69.95 Ever since the groundbreaking work of Palade and others determined the basic outline of the secretory pathway in the 1950s and 1960s, understanding intracellular protein transport has been one of the core projects of cell biology. These early studies were often done with cells that secrete large amounts of a few proteins and at first it was not clear how many other proteins left the cytoplasm or if the same pathways were used in other cell types. We now know that in most cell types, a large fraction of proteins are moved out of the cytoplasm after they are synthesized and that cells use complex mechanisms to get them to the right intracellular location. Current estimates are that about 50% of the proteins in a typical eukaryotic cell are transported out of the cytoplasm into organelles and membranes. Moreover, it has become increasing clear that when newly synthesized proteins are shipped to some intracellular location, that is not the end of the story; many proteins cycle between one or more compartments in a cell. This has become particularly evident since the development of methods to visualize proteins moving in live cells using the green fluorescent protein has revolutionized our view of protein dynamics. For example, we now know that a great many proteins cycle in and out of the nucleus and that many proteins that are residents of the secretory and endocytic pathways cycle between various compartments in these pathways. We have learned a great deal about the highly complex, sometimes seemingly Byzantine mechanisms cells employ to move proteins between intracellular compartments, which fall into two broad categories. The first are those used to translocate proteins across or into membranes. Since all proteins are synthesized in the cytosol, with the exception of a small number of proteins
Book Reviews 447
made in mitochondria and chloroplasts, those destined for locations outside the cytoplasm must first be translocated across a membrane. Proteins translocated into mitochondria or chloroplasts are sometimes further translocated across the internal membranes in these organelles. The other method cells use to move proteins between compartments is vesicular transport, which is employed in the secretory and endocytic pathways. For students and those not working on protein trafficking, getting a handle on the field, particularly protein trafficking in the secretory and endocytic systems, can be a daunting task. Surprisingly, there have been few recent books on the subject aimed at students. Protein Targeting Transport & Translocation does a good job of filling that gap. Rather than an integrated overview of the subject, the book is a compendium of review articles on a variety of topics. Most chapters are written very clearly and give students both a sense of how the field has developed and what we know now. The book begins with a chapter by Dalbey, Chen, and Wiedmann that briefly describes the many methods used to study protein transport and translocation. Though parts of the chapter are not as clear as they could be, it provides a good short introduction to the many ways protein transport is studied and should be particularly useful to students. The book goes on to focus more on the question of how proteins are translocated across (or into) membranes, with nine chapters on various aspects of protein targeting and translocation and only three on protein transport in the secretory and endocytic pathways. There are also chapters on the unfolded protein response (Sidrauski, Brickner, and Walter) and disulfide bond formation (Regeimbal and Bardwell). The last few years have witnessed steady progress in our understanding of the many ways cells target and translocate proteins across membranes. These processes are studied in a variety of systems. However, in no case do we yet understand translocation in physicochemical terms. What we do know is discussed in depth in chapters on protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (Haigh and Johnson), the periplasm in bacteria (Driessen and van der Does), mitochondria (Prinz, Pfanner, and Truscott), cholorplasts (Soll, Robinson, and Heins), and peroxisomes (Subramani et al.). There is also an excellent review of nucleocytoplasmic transport in the chapter by Go¨rlich and Ja¨kel. Although it is impossible to be comprehensive in a book with such a wide scope, it would have been nice to see more on protein translocation in prokaryotes. There is relatively little on the recently discovered twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, which can move fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane, and almost nothing on type III secretion systems. These systems are often found in pathogens and have the remarkable ability to move proteins across a number of membranes directly from the cytoplasm of a pathogen into a host cell. Some of the most interesting unresolved questions in protein translocation concern the insertion of integral membrane proteins. These include how the orientation of transmembrane sequences is determined, how translocation channels can be laterally gated to allow transmembrane sequences to enter the membrane, and how polytopic membrane proteins are inserted. The chapter
by Kuhn and Spiess nicely summarizes these and many important related issues. Another fascinating topic in protein translocation has arisen from the recent discovery that cells can move misfolded proteins and some toxins out of the ER. Retrograde translocation, as the process is sometimes called, is the subject of a thoughtful chapter by Kostova and Wolf, and likely occurs through the same channel used to move proteins into the ER. How proteins are targeted for dislocation and the energy source for this process remain the subject of intense investigation and are discussed along with many other topics. The chapters on protein transport in the secretory and endocytic pathways, while being far from comprehensive, do a fine job of covering a lot of ground briefly. The chapters on secretion (Glick) and vesicular trafficking (Ostermann, Stauber, and Nilsson) are both very clear and succinctly summarize the many current controversies about the nature of trafficking in the Golgi apparatus and the role of SNAREs and other proteins in vesicular trafficking. There is also a good chapter on protein transport to the yeast vacuole by Graham and Nothwehr. Overall, this book provides good summaries of what we know about how proteins are moved between intracellular compartments and how we have studied this problem. Students or anyone wanting to know more about protein trafficking, particularly protein translocation across membranes, will find it a useful guide. Will Prinz Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Gripping Tales of Bacterial Pathogenesis Bacterial Adhesion to Host Tissues: Mechanisms and Consequences Edited by Michael Wilson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2002). 328 pp. $90.00 There is one fact that reliably arouses amazed murmurs in an introductory microbiology audience: within the human body, microbes outnumber our own cells by at least one order of magnitude. When considering this extraordinary microbial burden, which is mostly comprised of bacteria, one gains a great appreciation for the interspecies crosstalk that continuously reverberates within us all. This crosstalk, at its best, can help shape our development and aid our digestive processes and, at its worst, can send us to an early grave. Whether a bacterium triggers illness or coexists peacefully within our system often depends on where a microbe is able to set up shop. Strains of Escherichia coli, for example, may be quite innocuous, and even beneficial, as part of the immense microflora of the human gut, but their presence within the bloodstream, brain, or urinary tract can have disastrous effects on the host. Arguably, the