Seeds of three different varieties (Shaheen Basmati, Basmati-385 and NIAB-IR 9) of rice were exposed to increasing concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) of NaCl to investigate the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth, ion conten
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Pak. J. Bot., 46(4): 1153-158, 2014.
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) SADIA JAVED1*, SHAZIA ANWER BUKHARI1, M. YASIN ASHRAF2, SAQIB MAHMOOD3 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR3 1
Department of Applied Chemistry & Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2 Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan 3 Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan * Corresponding author e-mail: [email protected] Abstract
The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties.
Introduction Edible oil consumption is around 1.95 million tons in Pakistan. Seventy percent of the total oil requirement is met through imports. Edible oil import is next to petroleum and its demand is increasing day by day. Oilseed crops are among the 5% of total imports and 50% of agricultural imports of Pakistan (Anon., 2012). Therefore, it is of vital importance to enhance productivity of oilseed crop by using our natural resources. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is oil-seed crop yielding 32-40% seed oil (Soliman et al., 2011). Its oil is widely utilized in many industries for edible and dying purposes (Sadeghi et al., 2011). Safflower is moderately stress tolerant crop and can withstand extreme conditions of abiotic stress. Safflower is an important oil seed crop due to its rapid emergence and good seedling establishment in the field (Siddiqui et al., 2007; 2010). In Pakistan safflower is grown on residual moisture following a rice crop (Soliman et al., 2011). Among various environmental stresses, soil salinity has become a critical problem worldwide due to its dramatic effect on plant physiology and performance (Ahmad et al., 2012). These environmental stresses contribute significantly in reduction of crop yield below the potential maximum yield (Warraich et al., 2011; Abbas et al., 2013). Salinity delays the germination events, resulting in reduced plant growth and final crop yield (Azzedine et al., 2011; Basiri et al., 2013). The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with: 1) low osmotic potential of soil solution, 2) nutritional imbalance, 3) specific ion toxicity (salt stress) or 4) a combination of these factors (Ashraf et al., 2005). The growth and yield reduction in most crops under saline environments is known to cause an imbalance of the cellular ions resulting in hyper ionic and hyper osmotic stress in plants, leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals and metabolic toxicity (Tayefi-Nasrabadi et al., 2011).
Salinity actually reduces the ability of plants to take up water and resulted in reductions of growth rate (Munns, 2002). Keeping in view the importance of safflower as an oil seed crop and salinity as major constrains in getting its optimum productivity. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect on growth parameters, biochemical changes and fatty acid composition of safflower seed oil which can be used as markers to identify salinity tolerant and high yielding safflower genotypes. Materials and Methods Plant culture and treatment: Present experiments were conducted in pots in wire-house under natural conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan with six safflower genotypes (PI387820, PI-251978, PI-170274, PI-387821, PI-386174 and Thori-78) using salinity level of 8 dS m-1. Plastic pots having capacity of 8 kg filled with alluvial soil (analyzed according to the methods given in Hand Book No. 60 US Salinity Lab Staff; summarized in Table 1) were used in this study. After completion of germination two treatments i-e Control (with soil salinity i.e. 2.14 dS m-1 and 100 % field capacity), salinity (8.0 dS m-1) was imposed. Salinity was developed by mixing AnalR grade NaCl. This practice was carried out throughout the duration of study. Harvesting and plant growth: When the plants were of 95 days old, leaf samples were collected for the determination of biochemical changes. For the estimation of fresh and dry biomass, one plant was uprooted carefully from each pot, washed with distilled water, dried with filter paper and fresh weight was measured then place in an oven at 70±2oC for 72 hours and dry weight was estimated on a scientific digital balance.
SADIA JAVED ET AL.,
Table 1. Characteristics of soil and irrigation water used in this study. Soil characteristics Irrigation water characteristics Soil texture Clay loam ECe(dS m-1) 2.41 0.77 pH 7.76 7.9 Organic matter (%) 0. 4 14.7 7 NO3- (mg kg-1) 11 P (mg kg-1) -1 78 0.7 K(mg kg ) 15 3 Ca+Mg (meq L-1) CO3 (meq L-1) Nil Nil 3.5 2 HCO3 (meq L-1) Determination of biochemical changes: enzymes: Nitrate and nitrite reductases activities (NRA and NiRA) were studied by following the methods of Sym (1984) for NRA and Ramarao et al., (1983) for NiRA. Sugar: Immediately after harvesting, fresh leaf samples are chilled out to 0oC and then frozen to -40oC. Sugars were extracted from 0.1 g chopped leaf sample in 10 mL of 80% ethanol (v/v) by shaking it overnight. Reducing, non-reducing and total sugars were estimated from the above extract as described by Riazi et al., (1985). Total protein and amino acid: Fresh leaves were homogenized in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7) and filtrate was used for the estimation of protein, TFA and DNA. Total proteins were estimated using the method of Lowery et al., (1951) and total free amino acids were determined as described by Hamilton& Van Slyke (1943). Fatty acid: Oil from 1g of seeds of each variety was extracted in n-hexane through mechanical method using metallic rod to press the seeds. Vials containing seeds were shaked for 30 minutes on a forward and back shaker and then centrifuged. Supernatant containing oil was recovered, solvent was evaporated and oil was esterified for gas chromatographic analysis. Methylation of fatty acids in the extracted oil sample was carried out according to the procedure described by Wang & Stute (2000) with some modifications. Gas chromatography (GC-17A Shamadzu) having conditions, DB-Wax column 30m long 0.25mm inside diameter and flame ionization detector was used for fatty acid profile determination. The temperature of the thermostat was 140oC for 5 min 240oC at 4/min but the temperature at injection time was 260oC at 150psi pressure and Helium served as carrier gas with a flow rate of 30mL/min. Statistical analysis: The Data was analyzed by applying two way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Treatment means and varietal means were compared by LSD and the significance level was calculated at p≤ 0.050 (Steel et al., 1997). Result Growth: Fresh and dry biomass and yield were significantly reduced due to both the stresses in all the safflower genotypes. Under saline condition maximum
reduction over control in fresh biomass was recorded in safflower genotype V4 (50%) while it was minimum V5 (21 %) closely followed by V6 (25 %) (Table 2). Dry weight was also affected by salinity in all safflower genotypes (Table 2). Under saline conditions minimum reduction over control in dry biomass was recorded in V6 (16%) closely followed by V5 (23%) while maximum reduction was noted in V4 (35%). Seed yield was significantly reduced in all safflower genotypes due to salinity (Table 2). Under saline conditions minimum decrease was recorded in V1 (5%) and it was maximum in V5 (53%). Biochemical changes: It is evident from present study that activity of nitrate reductase was significantly reduced due to salinity. However, different genotypes responded differently to salinity. Salinity affected NRA of all the six genotypes but in PI-386174 (V5) the reduction in NRA was less as compared to other genotypes. The reduction was upto (12%) in variety V5 (26%) in variety V3 under salinity conditions while it was (36%) V1 under salinity conditions respectively (Fig. 1A). Nitrite Reductase Activity (NiRA) was also reduced in all the varieties under salinity but among all the safflower genotypes PI-387820 (V1) and THORI-78 (V6) maintained the highest NiRA both under salinity conditions (Fig. 1B) while it was minimum in PI-387821 (V4) closely followed by PI-386174 (V5). Concentrations of total free amino acid (TFA) were significantly (p≤0.050) affected by salinity in safflower genotypes. The safflower plants growing under normal conditions had less TFA contents than those growing under saline condition. All genotypes of safflower showed a significant increase in TFA. The concentration of TFA in safflower variety/genotype V1 was significantly higher than all other genotypes under salinity condition. Safflower genotype V4 was next in performance regarding TFA (Fig. 2A). Total soluble protein significantly (p≤0.050) decreased due to salinity in all safflower genotypes. The highest reduction as compared to control in soluble protein was noted in THORI-78 (V6 ) under saline while the lowest was noted in PI-386174 (V5) closely followed by PI387820 (V1) and PI-387821 (V4) (Fig. 2B).
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, COMPOSITION IN SAFFLOWER
Table 2. Effect of salinity and drought on plant growth of safflower varieties Dry weight plant-1 Seed yield plant-1 Fresh weight plant-1 Designated name (g) (g) (g) of genotype Control Salinity Control Salinity Control Salinity V1 33.69h 21.09k 10.795h 07.130k 1.479h 1.404k V2 46.26d 31.79i 14.693d 10.030i 2.091f 1.612i V3 52.11c 34.21g 15.917c 11.020g 3.623b 1.879g V4 36.79f 18.24l 12.950f 8.467l 2.202e 1.416j V5 52.35b 41.33j 14.703b 11.310j 2.631d 1.229l V6 56.47a 42.45e 15.730a 12.800e 4.212a 2.659c
Note: Values sharing same letters in mean columns for genotypes and in rows for treatment did not vary significant at p≤0.01
Fig. 1. Effect of salinity on Nitrate reductase (A) Nitrite reductase activity (B) in different safflower varieties.
Fig. 2. Effect of salinity and drought on Total free amino acids (A) Total soluble proteins (B) in different safflower varieties
Sugars accumulation significantly (p≤0.050) increased under salinity as compared to non stress conditions in all the safflower genotypes. However, accumulation of sugars was significantly higher (p≤0.050) in safflower genotype PI-251978 (V2) than other under salinity (Fig. 3A). All safflower genotypes showed an increase in reducing sugars under stressed conditions. However, PI-251978 (V2) showed the maximum accumulation of non-reducing sugar than others (Fig. 3B). Salinity significantly (p≤0.050) influenced the concentration of total soluble sugars in safflower genotypes. Plants growing under environmental stresses generally showed increase in sugars, betaine and proline. It was observed that PI-170274 (V4) and PI-386174 (V5) maintained the level of total soluble sugars (TSS) as compared to other varieties. However, it was the highest in PI-251978 (V2) and PI-170274(V3) (Fig. 3C).
Fatty acid, oleic acid was the highest in PI-170274(V3) while PI-251978 (V2) and PI-387821 (V4) have high linoleic acid but low oleic acid (Table 3). All varieties respond differently in response to salinity. PI-386174 (V5) and THORI-78 (V6) showed a remarkable increase in oleic acid followed by palmitic acid and stearic acid but decrease in linoleic acid and PI-170274 (V4) exhibited increase in linoleic acid and reduction in palmitic, stearic and oleic acid under salinity. It was observed that over all varieties showed a change in oil contents and fatty acid composition. However, minimum saturation level was found in PI-387821 (V4) and maximum unsaturation level in PI-251978 (V2) and PI-387821 (V4) under salinity stress, While PI-387821 (V4) showed highest ratio of unsaturation and saturation (Fig. 4).
SADIA JAVED ET AL.,
Table 3. Effect of salinity and drought on fatty acids profile of different safflower varieties. Palmitic acid C16:1 Stearic acid C18:0 Oleic acid c18:1 Linoleic acid C18:2 (% of oil content) (% of oil content) (% of oil content) (% of oil content) Genotype Name of Code genotype Treatments Treatments Treatments Treatments Control Salinity Control Salinity Control Salinity Control Salinity PI-387820 V1 06.96j 7.66f 1.20k 0.67l 13.00g 13.78d 78.84f 77.89h PI-251978 V2 07.57g 7.35h 1.66h 2.65b 09.27l 13.60e 81.50b 79.68e PI-170274 V3 10.11a 6.42k 1.94e 3.21a 19.34a 11.07j 68.61l 79.30d PI-387821 V4 08.45c 6.29l 2.41c 1.72g 13.33f 11.83i 75.81j 80.15c 07.23i 9.08e 1.25j 1.72f 09.83k 16.05c 81.67a 73.14i PI-386174 V5 Thori-78 V6 08.31d 9.56b 1.42i 2.38d 11.93h 14.59b 78.35g 73.47k Note: Values sharing same letters in mean columns for genotypes and in rows for treatment did not vary significant at p≤0.05
Fig. 3. Effect of salinity on reducing sugars (A) nonreducing sugars (B) and total sugars (C) in different safflower varieties.
Fig. 4. Effect of salinity on saturated fatty acids (A) unsaturated (B) and unsaturated/ saturated (C) fatty acids in different safflower varieties.
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON GROWTH, COMPOSITION IN SAFFLOWER
Discussion Investigations of plant responses to salt stress are very important in crop science, plant physiology and agricultural sciences because salinization of soil is progressive phenomenon. Plants adapt themselves by altering different physiological and biochemical processes to adjust the environmental stresses (Bohnert et al., 1995). These changes are: inhibition of plant growth and development, changes in soluble protein synthesis, accumulation of organic metabolites and altered ion relations (Hasegawa et al., 2000). Literature indicated that salt results in huge losses in plant productivity by reducing plant growth (Bohnert, 1995; Waraich et al., 2011; Ashraf et al., 2012; Kanwal et al., 2013) in almost all the plants. Salinity adversely affects plant growth and productivity of all the safflowers genotypes but it was minimum in tolerant crop varieties as observed in V6 and V1 in the present study (Table 3). Plants require mineral nutrients especially nitrogen for their proper growth and integrity. Higher plants have mainly taken up nitrogen in inorganic form (NH3 and NO3) by roots. Stressed plants mostly exhibited nutrient imbalance which causes inhibition in protein synthesis delay in enzyme solubilization and reduction in enzymatic activities (Figs. 1, 2, 3). Reduction in NO-3 concentration and uptake is may be due to the antagonistic effect of Cldue to NaCl salinity and disruption of root membrane integrity (Carvajal et al., 1999; Parida & Das, 2004; Ashraf et al., 2005; Akram et al., 2011). Sodium and chloride are the major ions, which cause many physiological disorder and poor plant productivity. Reduction in NO-3 uptake, NRA and NiRA under salinity has been reported by many researchers (Hamid et al., 2010; Jabeen & Ahmad, 2011). Nitrogen assimilation is a fundamental biological process that occurs in plants and has marked effects on plant productivity and biomass. Nitrate reductase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction in the NO3- assimilation pathway (Lee, 1999). Reduction in NRA may lead the decrease in NiRA which is observed in the present study (Fig. 1A, 1B). Nitrate must be reduced to ammonia in order to synthesize the structural component of the biological system (Heuer et al., 2005; Hamid et al., 2010). Nitrate reductase is inactivated in response to stress and as a result nitrogen metabolism is hampered in plants. It was observed that disturbance in N assimilation causes reduction in proteins in all safflower genotypes (Fig. 3). Decrease in soluble proteins is may be due to breakdown of proteins by proteolytic process under salinity or drought stresses (Parida& Das, 2004) consequently total amino acids increased in all safflower genotypes (Fig. 2). Proteins are structural component of the plant body. Stress induced reduction in protein synthesis may affect plant growth. Accumulation of amino acids reduces the osmotic potential which facilitates the inward movement of the water (Ashraf et al., 2005; Balal et al., 2011). Reports indicated that these amino acids are used to synthesize the necessary proteins and other molecules to support growth (Iqbal et al., 2011). However, some studies revealed a significant increase in soluble proteins in response to stresses (Hamid et al., 2010). Stress proteins may be developed in plants to cope with unfavorable environment conditions to protect certain enzymes and metabolic pathways.
In plants, under salinity stress conditions, accumulation of sugars (reducing, non-reducing) is reported which allowed the plants to adjust osmotically (Rolland et al., 2002; Wang & Stute, 2002). Plants have been attributed an adaptation by increase in carbohydrate level in response to stresses. In addition to osmoregulators soluble sugars may act as osmoprotectants for protein under stressed condition (Ashraf et al., 2005). In the present study, sugars contents increased due to imposition of stress in all safflower genotypes (Fig. 3). The salt tolerant genotype V2accumulated more sugar, which is effective in maintaining turgor by decreasing osmotic potential, followed by genotype V1 and V3. Two types of safflower oil are reported those containing high monounsaturated fatty acid such as oleic acid (used as heat stable cooking oil) and those containing high polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (used as cold oil). Salinity modified fatty acids composition and it is considered to be very important in stress tolerance of plants (Malkit et al., 2002). Under stress conditions, oil contents of olive were decreased and composition of fatty acids also changed Stefanoudaki et al., (2009). In present research differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under both stresses (Table 3). The linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids are the fatty acid, which affect the quality of oil. According to Noreen & Ashraf, (2010) salt stress significantly increased seed oil palmitic, stearic acid contents but decreased seed oil linoleic acid contents in both lines of sunflower. Moreover, extent of unsaturation of fatty acids is correlated with salinity tolerance and potential of photosynthetic machinery to tolerate stress. Generally salinity stress induces inactivation of PSI and PSII (Allakhverdiev et al., 2000a). Unsaturated fatty acids in membrane lipids shelter PSI and PSII from inactivation as one of effective protective strategy. Where it affect dually; alleviating the salinity induced damage to PSI and PSII and improving the healing of injury (Allakhverdiev et al., 2000a; Allakhverdiev et al., 2000b; Allakhverdiev et al., 2001). Amongst genotypes unsaturation level was increased by PI-251978 (V2) and PI387821 (V4) under salinity (Fig. 4). Conclusion It can be inferred from present findings that changes in the levels of biochemical metabolites, i.e. NRA, NiRA, sugars, soluble proteins and total free amino acids, fatty acid composition can be used to identify the safflower genotypes having potential to tolerate salinity. References Abbas, G., M. Saqib, Q. Rafique, M.A. ur-Rahman, J. Akhtar, M.A. ul-Haq and M. Nasim. 2013. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 50: 185-189. Ahmad, K., M. Saqib, J. Akhtar and R. Ahmad. 2012. Evaluation and characterization of genetic variation in maize (Zea mays L.) for salinity tolerance. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 49:521-526. Akram, M., M.Y. Ashraf, M. Jamil, R.M. Iqbal, M. Nafees and M.A. Khan. 2011. Nitrogen application improves gas exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence in maize hybrids under salinity conditions. Russian J. Plant Physiol., 58: 394-40.
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