I would like to express my earnest gratitude and regards to my project guide, Professor. Susmita Das, Department ... This project is about design and implementation of a mobile embedded system to monitor and record key ... (5) Many monitoring systems
Jul 31, 2012 - transformer. Through-fault currents create forces within the trans- former that can eventually weaken the winding integrity. A com- prehensive transformer protection scheme needs to include pro- tection against transformer overload, th
GSM, Modem, C#, Monitoring System, AT Commands,. DTMF. 1. INTRODUCTION. Today computer technology has .... instructions used to control a modem. AT is the abbreviation of ATtention. Every command line .... System. (http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Pape
KeywordsâGSM, SMS, Patient, Monitoring system, Fuzzy. Logic, Multi-agent .... Base Station Subsystem (BSS) and it will be received to its destination agent.
Now it is a necessity to control and monitor LAN network more effectively and efficiently at anytime from anywhere. In this system, we are going to develop a.
Keywordsâ GSM, LabVIEW, Pacemaker alarm, Synchronous pacing. I. INTRODUCTION .... devised in the Arduino platform, to measure the battery level and provide indications for .... âManual for Adapta/Versaâ, 2009.  John.G.Webster.
able to benchmark the DT measurements to abnormal operation and take action before failure. Keywords- Protection of distribution transformer, differential protection scheme. I. INTRODUCTION. In power system network distribution transformer is electri
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a wireless ZigBee technology to monitor the parameters of the transformer. The transformer parameters such as voltage, ...
Sep 16, 2014 - d Departamento de IngenierÃa TÂ´ermica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III ... In this paper the Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology is ...
communication of the data through GSM technology by receiving an alert through SMS. I. INTRODUCTION. Hughes et al. 2006 introduced a flood monitoring and .... solution. It can solve by GSM and it will automatically give alarm sound to mobile user. In
acquire password for the Arduino BT and the cell phone to access the home appliances. ..... monitoring atmospheric weather conditions using weather balloonâ ...
Sep 1, 2017 - Abstract- To design a soldier tracking system using wireless system for monitoring the ... high rate. This paper shows the new fatigue detection .... An electronic amplifier, amplifier, or (informally) amp is an electronic device that.
to build a wireless heart beat monitoring system using GSM Technology, which ... healthcare appliances for a large-scale remote patient monitoring system.
ARDUINO. Here, we are using Zigbee for wireless transmission. The Doctor can get a record of a particular patient's information by just accessing the database of the patient on his PC which is continuously updated through Zigbee receiver module. KEYW
GSM BASED INTELLIGENT WIRELESS MOBILE PATIENT ... to transmit information between medical sensor and monitoring control center, the free space.
with help of modem communication using GSM. The power ... The mode of communication is wireless and mechanism ... Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).
Keywords. RFID Reader, GSM Network, SMS, Remote data monitoring. 1. ... attendance system is one of the solutions to address this problem. ..... notification as they punch: reduces the overhead in the ... Thesis.  LI Hai-lin LUO Chang-yuan WANG Y
Mar 2, 2013 - and light detector. The LED needs to be super bright as the maximum light must pass spread in finger and detected by detector. Now, when the heart pumps a ... 5. 555 Timer. 555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing p
May 5, 2013 - Abstractâ A distributed transformer networks remote monitoring system(DTRMS) is developed and constructed, for monitor and record the parameters like temperature, oil level status, of a distribution transformer. The system consists of
transforms a system of alternating voltages and current into another system of alternating voltages ... Monitoring the performance of a transformer is crucial in.
Mar 1, 2015 - temperature monitoring methods are electrical signal measurement and infrared ... Such as thermocouple and resistance thermometer sensor, etc. ...... and S.K.Pal, "Temperature Analysis of Induction Motors Using a.
GPS/GSM based train tracking system â utilizing mobile networks to support public transportation. Dileepa Jayakody, Mananu Gunawardana, Nipuna Wicrama.
Index Terms â Power transformer, embedded systems, transformer protection. I. INTRODUCTION. Power transformers are the important part of power system which are used to step up and down the power to make usable for electricity consumers. Transformer
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GSM BASED DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER MONITORING SYSTEM Bhakare Govind A.1, Dabe Nilesh P .2,Pawar S. D.3. 1 UG Student, Electrical Engineering, ATCFOE, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India 2UG Student, Electrical Engineering, ATCFOE, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India 3 Professor , Electrical Engineering, ATCFOE, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
ABSTRACT This paper presents design and implementation of a mobile embedded system to monitor and record key operation indictors of a distribution transformer like load currents, transformer oil and ambient temperatures. The proposed on-line monitoring system integrates a Global Service Mobile (GSM) Modem, with standalone single chip microcontroller and sensor packages. It is installed at the distribution transformer site and the above mention parameters are recorded using the built-in 8-channel analog to digital converter (ADC) of the embedded system. The acquired parameters are processed and recorded in the system memory. If there is any abnormality or an emergency situation the system sends SMS (Short Message Service) messages to designated mobile telephones containing information about the abnormality according to some predefined instructions and policies that are stored on the embedded system EEPROM. Also, it sends SMS to a central database via the GSM modem for further processing. This mobile system will help the utilities to optimally utilize transformers and identify problems before any catastrophic failure.
Keyword: - GSM kit, Transformer, sensors, rectifier, microcontroller, power supply, LCD.. 1.INTRODUCTION In power systems, distribution transformer is electrical equipment which distributes power to the low-voltage users directly, and its operation condition is an important component of the entire distribution network operation. Operation of distribution transformer under rated condition( as per specification in their nameplate) guarantees their long life .However, their life is significantly reduced if they are subjected to overloading, resulting in unexpected failures and loss of supply to a large number of customers thus effecting system reliability. Overloading and ineffective cooling of transformers are the major causes of failure in distribution transformers -. The monitoring devices or systems which are presently used for monitoring distribution transformer exist some problems and deficiencies. Few of them are mentioned below. (1) Ordinary transformer measurement system generally detects a single transformer parameter, such as power, current, voltage, and phase. While some ways could detect multi-parameter, the time of acquisition and operation parameters is too long, and testing speed is not fast enough. (2) Detection system itself is not reliable. The main performance is the device itself instability, poor anti-jamming capability, low measurement accuracy of the data, or even state monitoring system should is no effect. (3) Timely detection data will not be sent to monitoring centers in time, which cannot judge distribution transformers three-phase equilibrium. (4) A monitoring system can only monitor the operation state or guard against steal the power, and is not able to monitor all useful data of distribution transformers to reduce costs. (5) Many monitoring systems use power carrier communication to send data, but the power carrier communication has some disadvantages: serious frequency interference, with the increase in distance the signal attenuation serious, load changes brought about large electrical 2 noises. So if use power carrier communication to send data, the real-time data transmission, reliability cannot be guaranteed. According to the above requirements, we need a distribution transformer real-time monitoring system to detect all operating parameters operation, and send to the monitoring center in time. It leads to online monitoring of key operational parameters of distribution transformers which can provide useful information about the health of
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transformers which will help the utilities to optimally use their transformers and keep the asset in operation for a longer period. This will help to identify problems before any serious failure which leads to a significant cost savings and greater reliability. Widespread use of mobile networks and GSM devices such GSM modems and their decreasing costs have made them an attractive option not only for voice media but for other wide area network applications. 1.2 Objectives There are three main objective of this system is as follows providing protection against overheating . proper indication of oil level. proper indication of over current. increase safety of transformer . 1.3 Methodology
2. BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT Abnormality in distribution transformer is accompanied with variation in different parameters like Winding temperature , Top and bottom oil temperatures, Ambient temperature, Load current, Oil flow (pump motor), Moisture in oil ,Dissolved gas in oil, Bushing condition, LTC monitoring, Oil level. However, we are dealing with oil temperature and load current. Online monitoring system consists of embedded system, GSM modem, mobile-users and GSM networks and sensors installed at transformer site Sensors are installed on transformer side which reads and measures the physical quantity from the distribution transformer and then it converts it into the analog signal. The embedded module is located at the transformer site. It is utilized to acquire, process, display, transmit and receive the parameters to/ from the GSM modem. The second is the GSM module. It is the link between the embedded system and the public GSM network. The third is utility module that has a PC-based -server located at the utility control center. The server is attached to GSM modem and received transmits SMS from/to the transformer site via the GSM module.
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First sensors which are installed at the transformer site sense the various parameters of transformers and convert into analog signal to be processed in signal conditioning circuits • Next the SCC consisting of opamps and resistors manipulates the analog signal to a compatible value so that can be read by the embedded system. •
Next the signal is passed through microcontroller. The ADC is used to read the parameters, built-in EEPROM is used to host the embedded software algorithm that takes care of the parameters acquisition, processing, displaying, transmitting and receiving. The built-in EEPROM is used to save the online measured parameters along with their hourly and daily averages.
The GSM modem is interfaced with the microcontroller through RS 232 adapter by which it upload and download SMS messages that contain information related to the transformer parameters and status.
This GSM modem then sends this SMS to mobile users containing information about parameters value of the distribution transformers.
4. GSM MODEM A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem is like a dial-up modem. The basic difference between them is the dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while the wireless modem sends and receives data through waves. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem also requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier to operate. SIM 300 is a Fixed Cellular Terminal (FCT) used for data applications. It is a compact and portable terminal which satisfy various data communication over GSM. It also can be connected to a computer with a standard RS232C serial port. SIM 300 offers features like Short Message Services (SMS), Data Services (sending and receiving data files), Fax Services and data file connectivity through wire is not available or not possible. The SIM 300 is very easy to set up. It also finds its applications in IT
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companies, Banks, Financial Institutions, Service Providers, Far away Project Sites, and other business establishments.
4.1 INSTRUCTION OF GSM MODEM AT commands: AT commands are the instructions used for controlling a modem. AT stands for Attention. Each and every command line starts with "AT" or "at". Because of this modem commands are called AT commands. Many of the commands are also used for controlling wired dial-up modems. These are supported by GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones. Apart from this common AT command set, GSM/GPRS modems and mobile phones also support an AT command sets which are specific to the GSM technology, which also includes SMS-related commands. Basic Commands and Extended Commands: There are two types of AT commands: They are basic commands and extended commands. • Basic commands are AT commands that do not start with "+". For example, D (Dial), A (Answer), H (Hook control) and O (Return to online data state) are basic commands. •
Extended commands are AT commands that start with "+". All GSM AT commands are extended commands. For example, +CMGS (Send SMS message), +CMSS (Send SMS message from storage), +CMGL (List SMS messages) and +CMGR (Read SMS messages) are extended commands.
5. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION This chapter describes about the software implementation of the project. This discuss about the programming and the software tools used and how output is obtained by programming. 5.1 SOFTWARE TOOLS AVR Studio and Pro Load are two software used to program microcontroller. 5.2 PROGRAMMING MICROCONTROLLER The compiler for high level language helps to reduce production time. For programming ATmega16L AVR Studio is used. The programming is done in embedded C language. The 24
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compilation of the C program converts it into machine language file (.hex). This is the only language the microcontroller will understand, because it has the original program code converted into a hexadecimal format. During this process some errors and warnings occurs. If there are no errors and warnings then run the program, the system performs all the given tasks and behaves as expected the software developed. If not the whole procedure is repeated again. 5.2.1 AVR STUDIO AVR studio is software used where machine language code is written and compiled. After compilation machine source code is converted to hex code to be burnt into the microcontroller. The program is written in C language code. 5.2.2 PROLOAD Proload is software that accepts only hex files. After the machine code is converted into hex code, that hex code has to be burnt into the microcontroller which done by the Proload. Proload is a programmer which contains a microcontroller in it other than the one which is to be programmed. The program is written in the Proload microcontroller in such a way that it accepts the hex file from the AVR Studio and burns this hex file into the microcontroller which is to be programmed. The Proload programmer kit requires power supply to operate, this power supply is given by the power supply circuit. It is noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board but in order to switch on the power supply, a source is required. This is accomplished from the power supply board with an output of 12 V. • Microcontroller Software Compiler generates a Hex file. •
Hex file accepted and sent to MCU program Loader.
Hex file programmed into Target Microcontroller device.
6. RESULT Nameplate rating of Distribution Transformer: KVA rating: 500 Cooling type: oil natural Voltage rating: HV: 11KV LV: 0.4KV Current rating: HV: 26.24A LV: 666.70A Impedance voltage: 3.92% Vector Group: Dy11 Maximum Temperature Rise in oil: 45 deg.C We need to monitor voltage and currents in phase. Under normal condition Ia=121.4A Vab=442.0V Ib=108.8A Vbc=437.2V Ic=138.5A Vca=440.3V Taking the data of previous fault condition Instantaneous load current in phases Ia=318.6A Ib=294.4A Ic=333.1A These currents of high magnitudes can’t be fed directly to our designed system. It needs to be scaled down. For this purpose current transformer and potential transformer can be used in practice. The current and voltage after being scaled down is fed to microprocessor based system where it compare it with the reference value and take consequent action.
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7.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The gsm based monitoring of distribution transformer is quite useful as compared to manual monitoring and also it is reliable as it is not possible to monitor always the oil level, oil temperature rise, ambient temperature rise, load current manually. After receiving of message of any abnormality we can take action immediately to prevent any catastrophic failures of distribution transformers. In a distribution network there are many distribution transformers and associating each transformer with such system, we can easily figure out that which transformer is undergoing fault from the message sent to mobile. We need not have to check all transformers and corresponding phase currents and voltages and thus we can recover the system in less time. The time for receiving messages may vary due to the public GSM network traffic but still then it is effective than manual monitoring. A server module can be included to this system for receiving and storing transformer parameters information periodically about all the distribution transformers of a particular utility in a database application. This database will be a useful source of information on the utility transformers. Analysis of these stored data helps the utility in monitoring the operational behavior of their distribution transformers and identify faults before any catastrophic failures thus resulting in significant cost saving as well as improving system reliability. 8. REFERENCES  Leibfried, T, “Online monitors keep transformers in service”, Computer Applications in Power, IEEE, Volume:11 Issue: 3 , July 1998 Page(s):36 -42.  Chan, W. L, So, A.T.P. and Lai, L., L.; “Interment Based Transmission Substation Monitoring”, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No. 1, February 1999, pp. 293-298.  Par S. Tenbohlen,T. Stirl, M. Rösner,” Benefit of sensors for on-line monitoring systems for power transformers”  T. D. Poyser, "An On-Line Microprocessor Based Transformer Analysis System to Improve the Availability and Uti'lization of Power Transformers". IEEE Trans. On Power Apparatus and Systems, Volume PAS-102, April 1983, pp.957-962.  Muhammad Ali Mazidi , Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D.Mckinlay, The 8051 Microcontroller And Embedded Systems Using Assembly And C,Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2008, India.  Microcontroller ATmega 16; www.atmel.com/Images/doc2466.pdf .