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Noise pollution Noise may not seem as harmful as the contamination of air or water, but it is a pollution problem that affects human health and can contribute to a general deterioration of environmental quality. Noise is undesirable and unwanted sound. Not all sound is noise. What may be considered as music to one person may be noise to another! It is not a substance that can accumulate in the environment like most other pollutants. Sound is measured in a unit called the 'decibel' (dB). There are several sources of noise pollution that contribute to both indoor and outdoor noise pollution. Noise emanating from factories, vehicles, and playing of loudspeakers during various festivals can contribute to outdoor noise pollution, while loudly played radio or music systems, and other electronic gadgets can contribute to indoor noise pollution. A study conducted by researchers from the New Delhi-based National Physical Laboratory show that noise generated by firecrackers (presently available in the market) is much higher than the prescribed levels. The permitted noise level is 125 decibels, as per the Environment (Protection) (second amendment) Rules, 1999. The differences between sound and noise is often subjective and a matter of personal opinion. There are, however, some very harmful effects caused by exposure to high sound levels. These effects can range in severity from being extremely annoying to being extremely painful and hazardous. “People & Environment”
Decibel levels of common sounds dB 0
Environmental Condition Threshold of hearing
Rustle of leaves
Bedroom at night
Conversational speech (at 1m)
Light traffic noise
Threshold of pain
Effects of noise pollution Physical health. The most direct harmful effect of excessive noise is physical damage to the ear and the temporary or permanent hearing loss often called a 'temporary threshold shift' (TIS). People suffering from this condition are unable to detect weak sounds. However, hearing ability is usually recovered within a month of exposure. In Permanent loss, usually called 'noise-induced permanent threshold shift' (NIPTS) represents a loss of hearing ability from which there is no recovery. Below a sound level of 80 dB hearing loss does not occur at all. However, temporary effects are noticed at sound levels between 80 and 130 dB. About 50% of the people exposed to 95 dB sound levels at work will develop NIPTS and most people exposed to more than 105 dB will experience permanent hearing loss to some degree. A sound level of 150 dB or more can physically rupture the human eardrum. The degree of hearing loss depends on the duration as well as the intensity of the noise. For example, 1 hour of exposure to a 100 dB sound level can produce a TIS that may last for about one day. However, in factories with noisy machinery, workers are subjected to high sound levels for several hours a day.
Exposure to 95 dB for 8 hours everyday for over a period of 10 years may cause about 15 dB of NIPTS. In addition to hearing losses, excessive sound levels can cause harmful effects on the circulatory system by raising blood pressure and altering pulse rates. Mental health. Noise can also cause emotional or psychological effects such as irritability, anxiety and stress. Lack of concentration and mental fatigue are significant health effects of noise. It has been observed that the performance of school children is poor in comprehension tasks when schools are situated in busy areas of a city and suffer from noise pollution. As noise interferes with normal auditory communication, it may mask auditory warning signals and hence increases the rate of accidents especially in industries. It can also lead to lowered worker efficiency and productivity and higher accident rates on the job. Thus, noise is just more than a mere nuisance or annoyance. It definitely affects the quality of life. It is therefore important to ensure the mitigation or control of noise pollution.
“People & Environment”
Permitted noise levels Ambient Noise Levels dB Zone
Instantaneous rupture of membrane
A standard safe time limit has been set for exposure to various noise levels. Beyond this 'safe' time continuing exposure over a period of a year will lead to hearing loss.
“People & Environment”
One of the technique to reduce the noise: Sound walls •Can reduce the loudness of traffic noise by as much as half •Do not completely block traffic noise •Can be effective •Must be tall and long with no openings •Are most effective within 61 meters of a highway •Must be designed to be visually appealing •Must be design to preserve aesthetic values and scenic vistas •Substantially reduce noise levels for people living next to highways Legislation for noise abatement is already in place in certain parts of Europe!
What type of material? •Noise barriers can be constructed from: – Earth – Concrete – Masonry – Wood – Metal – Glass, Plastics, etc… •Selection is made considering the following factors: – Aesthetics' – Durability – Maintenance – Cost – Desires of public
Sabic IP provides : The toughest transparent alternative!
Polycarbonate sheets for sound screens
Airports Roadways Railways
Lexan* sound walls The acoustic properties of ExellD and Margard sound screens have been proven in applications all over the Europe
Thin sheet 10-30% sound absorption
Thick sheet 70-90% sound absorption
Sound wall and Product Requirements Sound wall Requirements
- Extrusion Process (Wavelike Defects) -ripple -distortion
Light Transmission Light Transmission is the [%] of visible light that get transmitted trough the sheet. Typical values are: - Lexan* Sheet Transparent (112): 88% - Lexan*Sheet Bronze (5109): 50% - Light transmission of Lexan* sheet is comparable to acrylic and glass
Sabic-IP SFS strives towards continuous reduction of discrete and continuous defects. The base sheets for our sound wall products are produced under clean room conditions to reach optimal quality
Charpy Notched Impact Strength (IS0 179/2C) The charpy notched impact strength for various materials was tested at room temperature. Lexan* sheet behaves ductile whereas glass an acrylic behave brittle. Lexan* sheet has by far the highest Energy absorption.
The test is aimed at reproducing that hazard that occurs when parts fly at high speed into Lexan* sheet. A 12 [mm] Lexan* sheet can withstand a projectile of 2.5 [kg] impacting at a speed of 63 m/s (225 km/h)
Lexan* sheet retains the majority of it’s impact strength for a wide Temperature range of –30 [DegC] up to 120 [DegC]
Taber Abrasion Test Sabic-IP measures [%] Haze after 500cycles, the test is similar to DIN 52347 / ISO3537 / ASTM D1044 The % Haze means the loss of light transmission versus the light transmission of a normal PC sheet (~90 %).
Laboratory Test To Simulate Outdoor Environment
Weathering performance •Solar radiation initiates degradation through superficial surface crazing and these micro crazes becomes sites for further erosion from water, dust, chemicals , etc •The degree to which these conditions affect the polymer depend largely upon environmental parameters such as : geographical location , altitude , seasonal variation, etc. •All Lexan Sheet products, for the building and construction market , have proprietary UV protected surfaces, giving excellent resistance to outdoor weathering and ensures long term optical quality and maintains the superior toughness and impact strength . •In order to proof effective UV protection, Sabic-IP Technology performs artificial weathering, correlated to real life outside exposure .
Accelerated weathering test according ISO 11341 •Light source: Xenon radiation — 300 – 400Nm – 50 W/m² •Black panel temperature: 65 °C •Chamber temperature: 40 °C •Relative humidity: 70 % •Cycle UV light: constant light •Water spray on/ff — 18 min. on /102 min. off
800 hours in the UV apparatus is equivalent to about 1 year outdoor exposition (45° south) in a moderate climate.
Sabic-IP SF&S Lexan* sheets products for building and construction applications are backed by a limited written warranty covering: discoloration, loss of light transmission, loss of strength.
Weathering performance Xenon accelerated weathering test ISO 11341 Lexan ExellD 6mm
Transparent Lexan* sheet
delta A / delta B
2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50
Reference ∆Y = 2
0.00 -0.50 0
∆Y = 4
-1.00 -1.50 Hrs
Opal white Lexan* sheet
Delta B: delta yellowing after 14000 hours (17.5 years) +/- 3 Delta A: loss of light transmission after 14000 hours (17.5 years) +/- 1.5 %
∆Y = 10
Abrasion Resistance & Weather-ability High 3
Abrasion Resistance Haze [%]
New Margard MR5E 12
Soundglaze SC MRX
Uncoated PC Low
Weathering (UV Resistance)
Combining Abrasion Performance and Resistance to Yellowing
Chemical Resistance / Cleaning Chemical Resistance Chemical
Graffiti Resistance Uncoated
Sulfuric acid (95%)
Hydrochloric acid (32%)
Super Gasoline (Esso)
Diesel fuel ( Esso)
Key: W = Surface whitening S=Surface dissolution Note: This information applies to Margard* MR5E/MRX/SoundglazeSC.
The SNCF (French Railways) Have tested Lexan* Margard Sheet on its resistance against graffiti Sheet were cleaned with three commonly used cleaning agents for removal or graffiti. Report Conclusion: graffiti could be successfully removed with without damaging the margard coating
Use In Railway Environment AEA Technology has tested Lexan soundglaze SC at Utrecht Central station. The material was tested against graffiti and material deposition of breaking trains. Report Conclusion: Lexan* Soundglaze SC Sheet can be used a sound walls in the harsh railway environment. The cleanability is good
The Margard* Hard Coatings are a barrier against chemicals
Sound Muffling Performance (1) 1 - Tests have been carried out to determine sound reduction properties of Lexan* polycarbonate sheet. - Picture 1&2 provide a comparison on the acoustic insulation provided by glass and Lexan* at equal gauges 2
- At gauges between 8 and 12 [mm] equal performance is observed. - At 12 [mm] gauge Lexan*Sheet provides 35 [dB] acoustic insulation.
Lexan* Sheet has a better sound insulation at 12mm comparing to 12mm glass
Sound Muffling Performance (2) Testing at CEBTP - Lexan* Sheets were tested at the CEBTP (French Research Center for Building and Construction and Civil Works - The sheet were tested against the NF EN ISO 140-3 and EN-ISO 717-1 procedures as defined in the EN 1793-2 Sound Insulation. - For 8 and 12 mm gauges the respective sound reduction values of 26 and 29 were obtained
Official Certificate: 29 dB Sound Reduction at 12mm gauge .
New 15 mm Lexan sheet
• Exell-D A4 samples available at service centre . • MOQ = 2 pallets
sound reduction in dB
Available in 9030 and ExellD grades •Complete portfolio with respect to gauges •Excellent choice for variety of applications in Industry as well as B&C market segment – Sound walls • Improved sound absorption • Allows more distance between pillars • Can be used as direct replacement of acrylic screens – Machine guards • Higher energy absorption
34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 4
sheet thickness in mm
New 15 mm!
Flammability (1) Test Oxygen Index
Limited Oxygen Index Description (ISO4589 (ASTM D2863)) - The oxygen index represents the minimum level of oxygen in the atmosphere which can sustain flame on a thermoplastic material. The Limited Oxygen Index or LOI is defined as the minimum oxygen concentration in which the material will burn for three minutes or can keep burning over a distance of 50 [mm] - LOI Lexan* sheet: 25 [%] - LOI Acrylic sheet: 18 [&]
- Air contains only 20 [%] oxygen. Lexan* sheet requires more oxygen than available in air to contribute to flame spread. UL94 Test Decription - The UL94 test decribes a materials ability to extinguish a flame one ignited. Ratings are based on the burning rate, time to extinguish and dripping behavior. The ratings are dependent on gauge - V0: burning stops in 10 seconds, no drips allowed - V1: burning stops in 30 seconds, no drips allowed - V2: burning stops in 30 seconds, drips allowed - Lexan* Sheet V0 at 6 [mm] (transparent)
Lexan* Polycarbonate Contributes To Flame Spread Control
Flammability (2) Flame spread is dangerous and is a big issue
•Lexan* sheet is classified as self extinguishing and will not contribute to fire propagation •Fire classification —France NFP92-501/505 – M1 / M2 —Germany DIN 4102 part 1 – B1 /B2
The Netherlands – location: Dordrecht A-16 the main motorway between the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp the material burning is acrylic sheet; the acrylic material costs was not even Eur 50K, damage > Eur 500K. The Acrylic sheets were replaced by Lexan MR5E polycarbonate sheet!
—Italy UNI 9174 -
Class 1 /2
—United Kingdom BS476 PART7
Class 1y / 2 y
—Netherlands NEN6065 – Class 1 / 2
Lexan* sheet is classified as self extinguishing and will not contribute to fire propagation
Sheet stiffness & behavior under Wind Loads Deflection under wind loads - Picture 1 provides the maximum sheet sizes allowed for two wind loads (1000 and 1500 N/m2) at which the sheet center will not defect more than 50 mm
- This results are valid when the sheets are clamped at four sides with an overlap of 25 mm
Maximal continuous use temperature according UL746B: -40°C till + 120°C
- A major advantage of Lexan* sheet is it’s stiffness retention at higher temperatures. At 100 °C 80% of the original stiffness at room temperature remains. See picture 2.
Lexan* sheet products retain 85% of their stiffness at 82°C
- For specific designs, simulations can be made to estimate deflection and stress in the sheet. For an example see picture 3.
Lexan sheets are stiff even at higher temperatures
Cold curving and line bending
Cold line bending process
Comparison with other transparent sound wall materials Properties
Lexan ExellD (Soundglaze)
Lexan Margrd MR5E, MRX (Soundglaze SC)
- for HI: +/-
Resistance to yellowing
Max thickness (mm)
Max size (mm)
2050 x 6050
2000 x 3000
2000 x 4000
Certification Soundwall Specific Certifications
Nen6065: Flammability - Lexan* Margard* Sheets were tested class 2 for gauges 3-12 [mm]
PC Sheet, 2-sides UV Caplayer 8/9.5/12/15 mm Max. 2 x 6 m Transparent (112), Bronze (5109) Delta Yellowness Index <12 after 10 years Retention of Impact Strength after 10 years
PC Sheet, 2-sides Hard Coating 8/9.5 /12/ 15 mm Max. 2 x 6 m Transparent (112), Bronze (5109) Delta Yellowness index < 10 after 5 years Retention of Impact Strength after 10 years
*Special colors available on request
Description Gauges Sizes Colors* Limited Warranty
PC Sheet, 2sides Hard Coating 8/9.5/12 mm Max. 2 x 3 [m] Transparent (112), Bronze (5109) Delta Yellowness index < 10 after 7 years Retention of Impact Strength after 10 years
Products backed up by warranties
Lexan* Soundwalls in many countries
Design examples (1)
Design Examples (2)
Design examples (2)
Overview Reference Projects
Example of bird-stripes printed
Lexan* Soundglaze, Warsaw Poland
Lexan* Margard *MR5E HSL Lotte Belgium
Lexan*Margard MR5E Bird-stripes, HSL Rotterdam The Netherlands
Lexan*Margard MR5E , A-16 Dordrecht , the Netherlands after arson attempt
Lexan*Margard MR5E Bird-stripes, Oslo Norway
Reference projects in various countries
Installation Guidelines Installing Lexan Sheets For processing and installing Lexan sheet certain guidelines need to be followed, for example: - Allowance for thermal expansion - Type of sealants and gasket systems - Type of saw blades to be used Available information -
* Above information can be provided in printed and electronic
Tailored Technical Service
SABIC-IP Global Disclaimer THE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OF SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS HOLDING BV, ITS SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES (“SELLER”), ARE SOLD SUBJECT TO SELLER’S STANDARD CONDITIONS OF SALE, WHICH CAN BE FOUND AT http://www.sabic-ip.com AND ARE AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST. ALTHOUGH ANY INFORMATION OR RECOMMENDATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS GIVEN IN GOOD FAITH, SELLER MAKES NO WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (i) THAT THE RESULTS DESCRIBED HEREIN WILL BE OBTAINED UNDER END-USE CONDITIONS, OR (ii) AS TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OR SAFETY OF ANY DESIGN INCORPORATING SELLER’S PRODUCTS, SERVICES OR RECOMMENDATIONS. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN SELLER’S STANDARD CONDITIONS OF SALE, SELLER SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY LOSS RESULTING FROM ANY USE OF ITS PRODUCTS OR SERVICES DESCRIBED HEREIN. Each user is responsible for making its own determination as to the suitability of Seller’s products, services or recommendations for the user’s particular use through appropriate end-use testing and analysis. Nothing in any document or oral statement shall be deemed to alter or waive any provision of Seller’s Standard Conditions of Sale or this Disclaimer, unless it is specifically agreed to in a writing signed by Seller. No statement by Seller concerning a possible use of any product, service or design is intended, or should be construed, to grant any license under any patent or other intellectual property right of Seller or as a recommendation for the use of such product, service or design in a manner that infringes any patent or other intellectual property right. SABIC Innovative Plastics is a trademark of Sabic Holding Europe BV * Trademark of SABIC Innovative Plastics IP BV