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Ordinary Generating Functions

Introduction We’ll begin this chapter by introducing the notion of ordinary generating functions and discussing the basic techniques for manipulating them. These techniques are merely restatements and simple applications of things you learned in algebra and calculus. You must master these basic ideas before reading further. In Section 2, we apply generating functions to the solution of simple recursions. This requires no new concepts, but provides practice manipulating generating functions. In Section 3, we return to the manipulation of generating functions, introducing slightly more advanced methods than those in Section 1. If you found the material in Section 1 easy, you can skim Sections 2 and 3. If you had some difficulty with Section 1, those sections will give you additional practice developing your ability to manipulate generating functions. Section 4 is the heart of this chapter. In it we study the Rules of Sum and Product for ordinary generating functions. Suppose that we are given a combinatorial description of the construction of some structures we wish to count. These two rules often allow us to write down an equation for the generating function directly from this combinatorial description. Without such tools, we may get bogged down in lengthy algebraic manipulations.

10.1 What are Generating Functions? In this section, we introduce the idea of ordinary generating functions and look at some ways to manipulate them. This material is essential for understanding later material on generating functions. Be sure to work the exercises in this section before reading later sections!

Definition 10.1 Ordinary generating function (OGF)

Suppose we are given a sequence a0 , a1 , . . . . The ordinary generating function (also called OGF) associated with this seP∞ i quence is the function whose value at x is i=0 ai x . The sequence a0 , a1 , . . . is called the coefficients of the generating function. 269

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People often drop “ordinary” and call this the generating function for the sequence. This is also called a “power series” because P it is thePsum iof a series whose terms involve powers of x. The ai x . summation is often written i≥0 ai xi or If your sequence is finite, you can still construct a generating function by taking all the terms after the last to be zero. If you have a sequence that starts at ak with k > 0, you can define a0 , . . . , ak−1 to be any convenient values. “Convenient values” are ones that make equations nicer in some sense. For example, if Hn+1 = 2Hn + 1 for n > 0 and H1 = 1. It is convenient to let H0 = 0 so that the recursion is valid for n ≥ 0. (Hn is the number of moves required for the Tower of Hanoi Pn−1 puzzle. See Exercise 7.3.9 (p. 218).) On the other hand, Pifn b1 = 1 and bn = k=1 bk bn−k for n > 1, it’s convenient to define b0 = 0 so that we have bn = k=0 bk bn−k for k 6= 1. (The latter sum is a “convolution”, which we will define in a little while.) To help us keep track of which generating function is associated with which sequence, we try to use lower case letters for sequences and the corresponding upper case letters for the generating functions. Thus we use the function A as generating function for a sequence of an ’s and B as the generating function for bn ’s. Sometimes conventional notation for certain sequences make this upper and lower case pairing impossible. In those cases, we improvise. You may have noticed that our definition is incomplete because we spoke of a function but did not specify its domain or range. The domain will depend on where the power series converges; however, for combinatorial applications, there is usually no need to be concerned with the convergence of the power series. As a result of this, we will often ignore the issue of convergence. In fact, we can treat the power series like a polynomial with an infinite number of terms. The domain in which the power series converges does matter when we study asymptotics, but that is still several sections in the future. If we have a doubly indexed sequence bi,j , we can extend the definition of a generating function: B(x, y) =

XX j≥0 i≥0

bi,j xi y j =

∞ X

bi,j xi y j .

i,j=0

Clearly, we can extend this idea to any number of indices—we’re not limited to just one or two.

Definition 10.2 [xn ] Given a generating function A(x) we use [xn ] A(x) to denote an , the

coefficient of xn . For a generating function in more variables, the coefficient P may be another generating function. For example [xn y k ] B(x, y) = bn,k and [xn ] B(x, y) = i≥0 bn,i y i .

Implicit in the preceding definition is the fact that the generating function uniquely determines its coefficients. In other words, given a generating function there is just one sequence that gives rise to it. Without this uniqueness, generating functions would be of little use since we wouldn’t be able to recover the coefficients from the function alone. This leads to another question. Given a generating function, say A(x), how can we find its coefficients a0 , a1 , . . .? One possibility is that we might know the sequence already and simply recognize its generating function. Another is Taylor’s Theorem. We’ll phrase it slightly differently here to avoid questions of convergence. In our form, it is practically a tautology.

Theorem 10.1 Taylor’s Theorem If A(x) is the generating function for a sequence a0 , a1 , . . ., then an = A(n) (0)/n!, where A(n) is the nth derivative of A and 0! = 1. (The theorem extends to more than one variable, but we will not state it.) We stated this to avoid questions of convergence—but don’t we have to worry about convergence of infinite series? Yes and no: When manipulating generating functions we normally do not need to worry about convergence unless we are doing asymptotics (see Section 11.4) or substituting numbers for the variables (see the next example).

10.1

What are Generating Functions?

271

Example 10.1 Binomial coefficients Let’s use the binomial coefficients to get some prac

tice. Set ak,n = nk . Remember that ak,n = 0 for k > n. From the Binomial Theorem, Pn P (1 + x)n = k=0 nk xk . Thus ak,n xk = (1 + x)n and so A(x, y) =

XX

ak,n xk y n =

n≥0 k≥0

From the formula

P

k≥0

X

(1 + x)n y n =

∞ X

((1 + x)y)n .

n=0

n≥0

az k = a/(1 − z) for summing a geometric series, we have A(x, y) =

1 1 = . 1 − (1 + x)y 1 − y − xy

Let’s see what we can get from this. • From our definitions, [xk y n ] A(x, y) =

10.1

n k

and [y n ] A(x, y) = (1 + x)n , which is equivalent to n X n k x = (1 + x)n 10.2 k

k=0

Of course, this is nothing new — it’s what we started out with when we worked out the formula for A(x, y). We just did this to become more familiar with the notation and manipulation. • Now let’s look at [xk ] A(x, y). From (10.1) and the formula for a geometric series, 1/(1 − y) 1 = (1 − y) − xy 1 − xy/(1 − y) X 1 y k X 1 xy k = xk . = 1−y 1−y 1−y 1−y

A(x, y) =

k≥0

k≥0

Thus [xk ] A(n, k) =

1 1−y

y 1−y

k

. In other words, we have the generating function X n yk . yn = (1 − y)k+1 k

10.3

n≥0

This is new and we’ll get more in a minute. • We can replace the x and y in our generating functions by numbers. If we do that in (10.2) it’s not very interesting. Let’s do it in (10.3). We must be careful: The sum on the left side is infinite and so convergence is an issue. With y = 1/3 we have X n 3k 3−n = k+1 , 10.4 k 2 n≥0

and it can be shown that the sum converges.P So this is a new result. On the other hand, if we n n set y = 2 instead the series would have been k 2 which diverges to infinity. The right side k+1 k of (10.3) is not infinity but (−1) 2 , which is nonsensical for a sum of positive terms. That’s a warning that something is amiss, namely a lack of convergence. • Returning to (10.1), let’s set x = y. In that case, we obtain X n 1 . 10.5 xn+k = A(x, x) = 1 − x − x2 k n,k≥0

What is the coefficient of xm on the left side? You should be able to see that it will be the sum of nk over all n and k such that n + k = m. Thus n = m − k and so X m − k 1 m = [x ] . k 1 − x − x2 k≥0

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In the next section, we will see how to obtain such coefficients, which turn out to be the Fibonacci numbers. Convergence is not an issue: the sum on the left is finite since the binomial coefficients are nonzero only when m − k ≥ k, that is k ≤ m/2. There are two important differences in the study of generating functions here and in calculus. We’ve already noted one: convergence is usually not an issue as long as we know the coefficients make sense. The second is that our interest is in the reverse direction: We study generating functions to learn about their coefficients but in calculus one studies the coefficients to learn about the functions. For example, one might use the first few terms of the sum to estimate the value of the function. The following simple theorem is important in combinatorial uses of generating functions. Some applications can be found in the exercises. It plays a crucial role in the Rule of Product in Section 10.4. Later, we will extend the theorem to generating functions with more than one variable.

Theorem 10.2 Convolution Formula

Let A(x), B(x), and C(x) be generating functions.

Then C(x) = A(x)B(x) if and only if cn =

n X

k=0

ak bn−k for all n ≥ 0.

10.6

P The sum can also be written k≥0 an−k bk and also as the sum of ai bj over all i, j such that i + j = n. We call (10.6) a convolution.

Proof: You should P have no difficulty verifying that the two other forms given for the sum are in

fact the same as ak bn−k . We first prove that C(x) = A(x)B(x) gives the claimed summation. Since we are not concerning ourselves with convergence, we can multiply generating functions like polynomials: X X n X X X k j k+j A(x)B(x) = ak x = bj x ak b j x = ak bn−k xn , k≥0

j≥0

k,j≥0

n≥0

k=0

where the last equality follows by letting k+j = n; that is, j = n−k. The sum on k stops at n because j ≥ 0 is equivalent to n − k ≥ 0, which is equivalent to k ≤ n. This proves that C(x) = A(x)B(x) implies (10.6). Now suppose we are given (10.6). Multiply by xn , sum over n ≥ 0, let j = n − k and reverse the steps in the previous paragraph to obtain X X C(x) = cn xn = ak bj xk+j = A(x)B(x). n≥0

k,j≥0

We’ve omitted a few computational details that you should fill in. Here are a few generating functions that are useful to know about. The first you’ve already encountered, the second appears in Exercise 10.1.4, the third is an application of the convolution formula (Exercise 10.1.6), and the others are results from calculus. ∞ X

(ark )xk =

k=0 ∞ X

a , 1 − rx

r k r(r − 1) · · · (r − k + 1) r for all r, x = (1 + x)r where = k! k k k=0 n ∞ X X 1 X ak xn = an xn , 1 − x n=0 k=0

n≥0

10.7 10.8 10.9

10.1 ∞ X ak xk k=0 ∞ X

k=1

What are Generating Functions?

273

= eax ,

k!

10.10

ak xk = − ln(1 − ax). k

10.11

Exercises These exercises will give you some practice manipulating generating functions. 10.1.1. Let p = 1 + x + x2 + x3 , q = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 , and r =

1 1−x .

(a) Find the coefficient of x3 in p2 ; in p3 ; in p4 . (b) Find the coefficient of x3 in q 2 ; in q 3 ; in q 4 . (c) Find the coefficient of x3 in r 2 ; in r 3 ; in r 4 . (d) Can you offer a simple explanation for the fact that p, q and r all gave the same answers? (e) Repeat (a)–(c), this time finding the coefficient of x4 . Explain why some are equal and some are not. 10.1.2. Find the coefficient of x2 in each of the following. (a) (2 + x + x2 )(1 + 2x + x2 )(1 + x + 2x2 ) (b) (2 + x + x2 )(1 + 2x + x2 )2 (1 + x + 2x2 )3 (c) x(1 + x)43 (2 − x)5

10.1.3. Find the coefficient of x21 in (x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 )8 . Hint. If you are clever, you can do this without a lot of calculation. 10.1.4. This exercise explores the general binomial theorem, geometric series and related topics. requires calculus.

Part (a)

(a) Let r be any real number. Use Taylor’s Theorem without worrying about convergence to prove (1 + z)

r

=

X r k≥0

k

z

k

where

r k

=

r(r − 1) · · · (r − k + 1) . k!

If you’re familiar with some form of Taylor’s Theorem with remainder, use it to show that, for some C > 0, the infinite sum converges when |z| < C. (The largest possible value is C = 1, but you may find it easier to use a smaller value.) (b) Use the previous result to obtain the geometric series formula: P k k≥0 az = a/(1 − z). (c) Show that

Pn

k=0

az k = (a − az n+1 )/(1 − z).

(d) Find a simple formula for the coefficient of xn in (1 − ax)−2 .

10.1.5.

P∞

m In this exercise we’ll explore the effect of derivatives. Let A(x) = m=0 am x , the ordinary generating function for the sequence a. In each case, first answer the question for k = 1 and k = 2 and then for general k.

(a) What is [xn ] (xk A(x)), that is, the coefficient of xn in xk A(x)? (n + k)! an+k d k . This notation means compute the kth derivative A(x) = dx n! n of A(x) and then find the coefficient of x in the generating function. It can also be written [xn ] A(k) (x).

(b) Show that [xn ]

d k A(x) = nk an . This notation means that you repeat alternately the dx operations of differentiating and multiplying by x a total of k times each. For example, when k = 2 we have x(xA0 (x))0 .

(c) Show that [xn ] x

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10.1.6. Using Theorem 10.2 or otherwise, do the following. (a) Prove: If cn = a0 + a1 + · · · + an , then C(x) = A(x)/(1 − x). (b) Simplify

n 0

−

n 1

n k

+ · · · + (−1)k

when n > 0.

(c) Suppose that dn is the sum of ai bj ck over all i, j, k ≥ 0 such that i + j + k = n. Express D(x) in terms of A(x), B(x), and C(x).

P

10.1.7. Suppose that |r| < 1. Obtain a formula for n≥0 sum converges by using the ratio test for series.

n k

r n as a function of k and r. Show that the

10.1.8. Note that (1 + x)m+n = (1 + x)m (1 + x)n . Note that the coefficients of powers of x in (1 + x)m+n , (1 + x)m , and (1 + x)n are binomial coefficients. Use Theorem 10.2 to prove Vandermonde’s formula:

m+n k

=

k X m n i=0

i

k−i

.

This is one of the many identities that are known for binomial coefficients. Hint. Remember that n and k in (10.6) can be replaced by other variables. Look at the index and limits on the summation. m i m 10.1.9. Find a simple expression for k−i , where the sum is over all values of i for which the i (−1) i binomial coefficients in the sum are defined.

P

10.1.10. The results given here are referred to as bisection of series. Let A(x) =

P∞

n=0 an x

n

.

(a) Show that (A(x) + A(−x))/2 is the generating function for the sequence bn which is zero for odd n and equals an for even n. (b) What is the generating function for the sequence cn which is zero for even n and equals an for odd n? (c) Evaluate

P

n k≥0 2k

x2k where x is a real number. In particular, what is

n k≥0 2k

P

?

*10.1.11. Fix k > 1 and 0 ≤ j < k. If you are familiar with kth roots of unity, generalize the Exercise 10.1.10 to the sequence bn which is an when n + j is a multiple of k and is zero otherwise: B(x) =

k−1 1 X js ω A(ω s x), k s=0

where ω = exp(2πi/k), a primitive kth root of unity. (The result is called multisection of series.)

10.1.12. Evaluate sk =

∞ X 2n

n=0

k

2−n .

*10.1.13. Using Exercise 10.1.11, show that ∞ X x3n

n=0

and develop similar formulas for

(3n)!

P

=

√ ex 2 cos(x 3/2) + 3 3ex/2

p3n+1 /(3n + 1)! and

P

p3n+2 /(3n + 2)!.

10.2

Solving a Single Recursion

275

*10.1.14. We use the terminology from the Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion (Theorem 4.1 (p. 95)). Also, let Ek be the number of elements of S that lie in exactly k of the sets S1 , S2 , . . . , Sm . (a) Using the Rules of Sum and Product (not Theorem 4.1), prove that Nr =

X r + k r

k≥0

Er+k .

(b) If the generating functions corresponding to E0 , E1 , . . . and N0 , N1 , . . . are E(x) and N (x), conclude that N (x) = E(x + 1). (c) Use this to conclude that E(x) = N (x − 1) and then deduce the extension of the Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion: Ek =

X i≥0

(−1)

i

k+i Nk+i . i

10.2 Solving a Single Recursion In this section we’ll use ordinary generating functions to solve some simple recursions, including two that we were unable to solve previously: the Fibonacci numbers and the number of unlabeled full binary RP-trees.

Example 10.2 Fibonacci numbers

Let Fn be the number of n long sequences of zeroes and ones with no consecutive ones. We can easily see that F1 = 2 and F2 = 3, but what is the general formula? Suppose that t1 , . . . , tn is an arbitrary sequence of desired form. We want to see what happens when we remove the end of the sequence, so we assume that n > 1. If tn = 0, then t1 , . . . , tn−1 is also an arbitrary sequence of the desired form. Now suppose that tn = 1. Then tn−1 = 0 and so, if n > 2, t1 , . . . , tn−2 is an arbitrary sequence of the desired form. All this is reversible: Suppose that n > 2. The following two operations produce all n long sequences of the desired form exactly once. • Let t1 , . . . , tn−1 be an arbitrary sequence of the desired form. Set tn = 0. • Let t1 , . . . , tn−2 be an arbitrary sequence of the desired form. Set tn−1 = 0 and tn = 1. Since all n long sequences of the desired form are obtained exactly once this way, the Rule of Sum yields the recursion Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 for n > 2. 10.12 Here are the first few values. n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fn 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 These numbers, called the Fibonacci numbers, were studied in Exercise 1.4.10, but we couldn’t solve the recursion there. Now we will. First, we want to adjust (10.12) so that it holds for all n ≥ 0. To do this we define Fn when n is small and introduce a new sequence cn to “correct” the recursion for small n; Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 + cn ,

10.13

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where F0 = 1, Fk = 0 for k < 0, c0 = c1 = 1, and cn = 0 for n ≥ 2. This recursion is now valid for n ≥ 0. Let F (x) be the generating function for F0 , F1 , . . .. In the following series of equations, steps without explanation require only simple algebra. F (x) = = =

∞ X

Fn xn

by defintion

n=0 ∞ X

(Fn−1 + Fn−2 + cn )xn

n=0 ∞ X

xFn−1 xn−1 + x2 Fn−2 xn−2 + cn xn

n=0 ∞ X

= x

= x

by (10.13)

n=0 ∞ X

Fn−1 xn−1 + x2

∞ X

Fn−2 xn−2 +

n=0

Fi xi + x2

i=1

∞ X

∞ X

an xn

n=0

Fk xk + 1 + x

by definition

k=0

= xF (x) + x2 F (x) + 1 + x. In summary, F (x) = 1 + x + (x + x2 )F (x). We can easily solve this equation: F (x) =

1+x . 1 − x − x2

10.14

Now what? We want to find a formula for the coefficient of xn in F (x). We could try using Taylor’s Theorem. Unfortunately, F (n) (x) appears to be extremely messy. What alternative do we have? Remember partial fractions from calculus? If not, you should read Appendix D (p. 387). Using partial fractions, we will be able to write F (x) = A/(1 − ax) + B/(1 − bx) for some constants a, b, A and B. Since the formula for summing geometric series is 1 + ax + (ax)2 + · · · = 1/(1 − ax), we will have Fn = Aan + Bbn . There is one somewhat sneaky point here. We want to factor a polynomial of the form 1 + cx + dx2 into (1 − ax)(1 − bx). To do this, let y = 1/x and multiply by y 2 . The result is y 2 + cy + d = (y − a)(y − b). Thus a and b are just the roots of y 2 + cy + d = 0. In our case we have y 2 − y − 1 = 0. Let’s carry out the partial fraction approach. We have √ 1± 5 2 . 1 − x − x = (1 − ax)(1 − bx) where a, b = 2 (Work it out.) For definitiveness, let a be associated with the + and b with the −. To get some idea of the numbers we are working with, a = 1.618 · · · and b = −.618 · · · . By expanding in partial fractions, you should be able to derive F (x) =

1+x 1+a 1+b = √ −√ . 1 − x − x2 5(1 − ax) 5(1 − bx)

Now use geometric series and the algebraic observations 1 + a = a2 and 1 + b = b2 to get Fn =

bn+2 an+2 √ − √ . 5 5

10.15

It is not obvious that this expression is even an integer, much less equal to Fn . If you’re not convinced, you might like to calculate √ √ a few values. Since |b| < 1, bn+2 / 5 < 1/ 5 < 1/2. Thus we have the further observation that Fn is the √ √ n+2 integer closest to a√ / 5 = (1.618 · · ·)n+2 /2.236 · · ·. For example a4 / 5 = 3.065 · · · which is close to F2 = 3 and a12 / 5 = 144.001 · · ·, which is quite close to F10 = 144. Of course, the approximations get better as n gets larger since the error is bounded by a large power of b and |b| < 1.

10.2

Solving a Single Recursion

277

The method that we have just used works for many other recursions, so it is useful to lay it out as a series of steps. Although our description is for a singly indexed recursion, it can be applied to the multiply indexed case as well.

A procedure for solving recursions Here is a six step procedure for solving recursions. It is not guaranteed to work because it may not be possible to carry out all of the steps. Let the sequence be an . 1. Adjust the recursion so that it is valid for all n. In particular, an should be defined for all n and an = 0 for n < 0. You may need to introduce a “correcting” sequence cn as in (10.13). P 2. Introduce the generating function A(x) = n≥0 an xn . 3. Substitute the recursion into the summation for A(x).

4. Rearrange the result so that you can recognize other occurrences of A(x) and so get rid of summations. (This is not always possible; it depends on what the recursion is like.) 5. If possible, solve the resulting equation to obtain an explicit formula for A(x). 6. By partial fractions, Taylor’s Theorem or whatever, obtain an expression for the coefficient of xn in this explicit formula for A(x). This is an .

You should go back to the previous example and find out where each step was done.

Example 10.3 Fibonacci numbers continued

Setting y = x in (10.1) gives 1/(1 − x − x2 ), which we’ll call H(x). This is nearly F (x) = (1 + x)/(1 − x − x2 ) of the previous example, suggesting that there is a connection between binomial coefficients and Fibonacci numbers. Let’s explore this.

Writing F (x)/(1 + x) = H(x) is not a good idea since the coefficient of xn on the left side is Fn − Fn−1 + Fn−2 − · · · and we’d like to find a simpler connection if we can. Writing the equation as (1 + x)H(x) = F (x) is better since the coefficient of xn on the left side is just hn + hn−1 . It would be even better if we could avoid the factor of (1 +x) and have a monomial instead, since then we would not have to add two terms together. You might like to try to find something like that. After some work, we found that 1 + xF (x) = H(x), which is easily verified by using the formulas for H(x) and F (x). You should convince yourself that for n > 0 the coefficient of xn on the left side is Fn−1 and so Fn = hn+1 . In fact, some people call 1, 1, 2, 3, . . . the Fibonacci numbers and then hn is the nth Fibonacci number and 1/(1 − x − x2 ) is the generating function for the Fibonacci numbers. Still others call 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, . . . the Fibonacci numbers and then x/(1 − x − x2 ) is the generating function for them. Anyway, with aj,i = ji , our Fibonacci number Fn is the coefficient of xn+1 in H(x). By (10.1), ∞ X ∞ X j i j xx . H(x) = i j=0 i=0 Note that the coefficient of xn+1 on the right side is the sum of ji over all nonnegative i and j such P n+1−i that i + j = n + 1. Hence Fn = n+1 . This is such a simple expression that it should have i=0 i a direct proof. We leave that as an exercise.

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Example 10.4 The worst case time for merge sorting

Let M (n) be the maximum number of comparisons needed to merge sort a list of n items. (Merge sorting was discussed in Example 7.13 and elsewhere.) The best way to do a merge sort is to split the list as evenly as possible. If n is even, we can divide the list exactly in half. It takes at most M (n/2) comparisons to merge sort each of the two halves and then at most n − 1 < n comparisons to merge the two resulting lists. Thus M (n) < n + 2M (n/2). We’d like to use this to define a recursion, but there’s a problem: n/2 may not be even. How can we avoid this? We can just look at those values of n which are powers of 2. For example, the fact that M (1) = 0 gives us M (8) < 8 + 2M (4) < 8 + 2 4 + 2M (2) = 8 + 2(4 + 4) = 24. < 8 + 2 4 + 2 2 + 2M (1)

How can we set up a recursion that only looks at values of n which are a power of 2? We let mk = M (2k ). Then m0 = M (1) = 0 and mk = M (2k ) < 2k + 2M (2k−1 ) = 2k + 2mk−1 .

So far we have only talked about solving recursive relations that involve equality, but this is an inequality. What can we do about that? If we define ck by c0 = 0 and ck = 2k + 2ck−1 for k > 0, 10.16 then it follows that mk ≤ ck . We’ll solve (10.16) and so get a bound for mk = M (2k ). Before calculating the general solution, it may be useful to use the recursion to calculate a few values. This might lead us to guess what the solution is. Even if we can’t guess the solution, we’ll have some special cases of the general solution available so that we’ll be able to partially check the general solution when we finally get it. It’s a good idea to get in the habit of making such checks because it is very easy to make algebra errors when manipulating generating functions. From (10.16), the first few values of ck are c0 = 0, c1 = 2, c2 = 2 · 22 = 23 , c3 = 3 · 23 and c4 = 4 · 24 . This strongly suggests that ck = k2k . You should verify that this is correct by using (10.16) and induction. Since we have the answer, why bother with generating functions? We want to study generating function techniques so that you can use them in situations where you can’t guess the answer. This problem is a rather simple one, so the algebra won’t obscure the use of the techniques. For Step 1, rewrite (10.16) as ck = 2k + 2ck−1 + ak for k ≥ 0, where ck = 0 for k < 0, a0 = −1, and an = 0 for n > 0. Now C(x) = = =

∞ X

k=0 ∞ X

k=0 ∞ X

k=0

ck xk

This is Step 2.

(2k + 2ck−1 + ak )xk

This is Step 3.

(2x)k 2x

∞ X

k=0

ck−1 xk−1 − 1

1 = + 2xC(x) − 1. 1 − 2x

This is Step 4.

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279

For Step 5 we have C(x) = 2x/(1 − 2x)2 . Partial fractions (Step 6) leads to X X −2 1 1 C(x) = (−2x)k − (2x)k . − = 2 (1 − 2x) 1 − 2x k k Thus ck = 2k (−1)k −2 k − 1 = k2 . Hence M (n) ≤ n log2 n when n is a power of 2. How good is

this bound? What happens when n is not a power of 2? It turns out that n log2 n is a fairly good estimate for M (n) for all n, but we won’t prove it.

Perhaps you’ve noticed that when we obtain a rational function (i.e., a quotient of two polynomials) as a generating function, the denominator is, in some sense, the important part. We can state this more precisely: For rational generating functions, the recursion determines the denominator and the initial conditions interacting with the recursion determine the numerator. No proof of this claim will be given here. A related observation is that, if we have the same denominators for two rational generating functions A(x) and B(x) that have been reduced to lowest terms, then the coefficients an and bn have roughly the same rate of growth for large n; i.e., we usually have an = Θ(bn ).*

Example 10.5 Counting unlabeled full binary RP-trees

Let bn be the number of unlabeled full binary RP-trees with n leaves. By Example 9.4 (p. 251), the number of such trees is the Catalan number Cn−1 . See Example 1.13 (p. 15) for more examples of things that are counted by the Catalan numbers. The recursion n−1 X bn = bk bn−k if n > 1 10.17 k=1

with b1 = 1 was derived as (9.3). Recall that b1 = 1 and b0 was not defined. Let’s use our procedure to find bn . Here it is, step by step. 1. Since (10.17) is nearly a convolution, we define b0 = 0 to make it a convolution: bn =

n X

bk bn−k + an ,

k=0

where a1 = 1 and an = 0 for n 6= 1. P 2. Let B(x) = n≥0 bn xn . P Pn 3. B(x) = n≥0 k=0 bk bn−k xn + x.

4. By the formula for convolutions, we now have B(x) = B(x)B(x) + x.

10.18

√ 5. The quadratic equation B = x + B 2 has the solution B = (1 ± 1 − 4x)/2. Since B(0) = b0 = 0, the minus sign is the correct choice. Thus √ 1 − 1 − 4x B(x) = . 2 6. By Exercise 10.1.4, r

(1 + z)

∞ X r(r − 1) · · · (r − n + 1) r n r z , where = = . n n n! n=0

* This notation is discussed in Appendix B. It means there exist positive constants A and B such that Aan ≤ bn ≤ Ban .

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Now for some algebra. With n > 0, r = 1/2 and z = −4x we obtain 1 12 bn = − (−4)n 2 n 1 1 1 1 1 n 2 ( 2 − 1)( 2 − 2) · · · ( 2 − n + 1) = (2 ) 2(−2)n−1 2 n! n−1 (−1 + 2)(−1 + 4) · · · (−1 + 2n − 2) 2 (n − 1)! = (n − 1)! n! 1 · 3 · · · (2n − 3) 2 · 4 · · · (2n − 2) = (n − 1)! n! 1 2n − 2 (2n − 2)! . = = (n − 1)!n! n n−1

As remarked at the beginning of the example, this number is the Catalan number Cn−1 . Thus 2n 1 Cn = n+1 n .

Exercises 10.2.1. Solve the following recursions by using generating functions. (a) a0 = 0, a1 = 1 and an = 5an−1 − 6an−2 for n > 1.

(b) a0 = a1 = 1 and an+1 = an + 6an−1 for n > 0.

(c) a0 = 0, a1 = a2 = 1 and an = an−1 + an−2 + 2an−3 for n > 2. (d) a0 = 0 and an = 2an−1 + n for n > 0. 10.2.2. Let S(n) be the number of moves needed to solve the Towers of Hanoi puzzle. In Exercise 7.3.9 you were asked to show that S(1) = 1 and S(n) = 2S(n − 1) + 1 for n > 1. (a) Use this recursion to obtain the generating function for S.

(b) Use the generating function to determine S(n). 10.2.3. Show without generating functions that

n+1−i i

is the number of n long sequences of zeroes and ones

with exactly i ones, none of them adjacent. Use this result to prove the formula Fn = that was derived in the Example 10.3 via generating functions.

P

i≥0

n+1−i i

10.2.4. Let sn be the number of n long sequences of zeroes, ones and twos with no adjacent ones and no adjacent twos. Let s0 = 1; i.e., there is one empty sequence. (a) Let k be the position of the last zero in such a sequence. If there is no zero, set k = 0. Show that the last n − k elements in the sequence consist of an alternating pattern of ones and twos and that the only restriction on the first k − 1 elements in the sequence is that there be no adjacent ones and no adjacent twos. (b) By considering all possibilities for k in (a), conclude that, for n > 0, sn = 2 + 2s0 + 2s1 + · · · + 2sn−2 + sn−1 . (c) Use the convolution formula to deduce S(x) = (1 + 2x + 2x2 + 2x3 + · · ·)(1 + s0 x + s1 x2 + s2 x3 + · · ·) = (d) Conclude that S(x) = (1 + x)/(1 − 2x − x2 ).

(e) Find a formula for sn and check it for n = 0, 1, 2. √ (f) Show that sn is the integer closest to (1 + 2)n+1 /2.

1+

2x (1 + xS(x)). 1−x

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281

10.2.5. The usual method for multiplying two polynomials of degree n − 1, say P1 (x) = a0,1 + a1,1 x + · · · + an−1,1 xn−1

P2 (x) = a0,2 + a1,2 x + · · · + an−1,2 xn−1

and

requires n2 multiplications to form the products ai,1 aj,2 for 0 ≤ i, j < n. These are added together in the appropriate way to form the 2n − 1 sums that constitute the coefficients of the product P1 (x)P2 (x). There is a less direct method that requires less multiplications. For simplicity, suppose that n = 2m. • First, split the polynomials in “half”: Pi (x) = Li (x) + xm Hi (x), where Li and Hi have degree at most m − 1. • Second, let A = H1 H2 , B = L1 L2 and C = (H1 + L1 )(H2 + L2 ). • Third, note that P1 P2 = Ax2m + B + (C − A − B)xm . (a) Prove that the formula for P1 P2 is correct. (b) Let M (n) be the least number of multiplications we need in a general purpose algorithm for multiplying two polynomials of degree n − 1. show that M (2m) ≤ 3M (m). (c) Use the previous result to derive an upper bound for M (n) when n is a power of 2 that is better than n2 . (Your answer should be M (n) ≤ nc where c = 1.58 · · ·.) How does this bound compare with n2 when n = 210 = 1024? Your bound will give a bound for all n since, if n ≤ 2k , we can fill the polynomials out to degree 2k by introducing high degree terms with zero coefficients. This gives M (n) ≤ M (2k ). (d) Show how the method used to obtain the bound multiplies 1 + 2x − x2 + 3x3 and 5 + 2x − x3 . *(e) It may be objected that our method could lead to such a large number of additions and subtractions that the savings in multiplication may be lost. Does this happen? Justify your answer. 10.2.6. Let tn be the number of n-vertex unlabeled binary RP-trees. (Each vertex has 0, 1 or 2 children.) (a) Derive the recursion t1 = 1

and

tn+1 = tn +

n−1 X

tk tn−k

for n > 0.

k=1

(b) With t0 = 0, derive an equation for the generating function T (x) = (c) Solve the equation in (b) to obtain T (x) =

1−x−

√

P

n≥0 tn x

n

.

1 − 2x − 3x2 2x

and explain the choice of sign before the square root. 10.2.7. Let c1 , . . . , ck be arbitrary real numbers. If you are familiar with partial fractions, Pm explain nwhy the solution to the recursion an = c1 an−1 + · · · + ck ak−k has the form an = i=1 Pi (n)ri for all sufficiently large n, where Pi (n) is a polynomial of degree less than di , the ri are all different, and 1 − c1 x − · · · − ck xk =

m Y

i=1

(1 − ri x)di .

How can the polynomials Pn (n) be found without using partial fractions?

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10.3 Manipulating Generating Functions Almost anything we do with generating functions can be regarded as manipulation, so what does the title of this section refer to? We mean the use of tools from algebra and calculus to obtain information from generating functions. We’ve already seen some examples of one tool being used: partial fractions. In this section we’ll focus on two others; (i) the manipulation of generating functions to obtain, when possible, simple recursions and (ii) the interplay of derivatives with generating functions. Some familiarity with calculus is required. The results in this section are used some in later sections, but they are not essential for understanding the concepts introduced there.

Obtaining Recursions Suppose we√ have an equation that determines a generating function B(x); for example, B(x) = 1− 21−4x . The basic idea for obtaining a recursion for B(x) is to rewrite the equation so that B(x) appears in expressions that are simple and so that the remaining expressions are easy to expand in power series. Once a simple form has been found, equate coefficients of xn on the two sides of the equation. We’ll explore this idea here.

Example 10.6 Rational functions and recursions Suppose that B(x) = P (x)/Q(x) where P (x) and Q(x) are polynomials. Expressions that involve division are usually not easy to expand unless the divisor is a product of linear factors with integer coefficients. Thus, we would usually rewrite our equation as Q(x)B(x) = P (x) and then equate coefficients. This gives us a recursion for the bi ’s which is linear and has constant coefficients. The description of the procedure is a bit vague, so let’s look at an example. When we study systems of recursions in the next chapter, we will show that the number of ways to place nonoverlapping dominoes on a 2 by n board has the generating function C(x) =

1−x . 1 − 3x − x2 + x3

Thus P (x) = 1 − x and Q(x) = 1 − 3x − x2 + x3 . Using our plan, we have (1 − 3x − x2 + x3 )C(x) = 1 − x.

10.19

There are now various ways we can proceed: Keep all subscripts nonnegative: When n ≥ 3, the coefficient of xn on the right side is 0 and the coefficient on the left side is cn − 3cn−1 − cn−2 + cn−3 , so all the subscripts are nonnegative. Rearranging this, cn = 3cn−1 + cn−2 − cn−3 for n ≥ 3. The values of a0 , a1 and a2 are given by initial conditions. Looking at the coefficients of x0 , x1 and x2 on both sides of (10.19), we have a0 = 1

a1 − 3a0 = −1

a2 − 3a1 − a0 = 0.

Solving we have a0 = 1, a1 = 2 and a2 = 7. (You might want to try deriving the recursion directly. It’s not easy, but it’s not an unreasonable problem for you at this time.) Allow negative subscripts: We now allow negative subscripts, with the understanding that an = 0 if n < 0. Proceeding as above, we get cn − 3cn−1 − cn−2 + cn−3 = 0 provided n ≥ 2. Thus we get the same recursion, but now n ≥ 2 and the initial conditions are only a0 = 1 and a1 = 2 since a3 is given by the recursion.

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283

Avoid initial conditions: Now we not only allow negative subscripts, we also do not restrict n. From (10.19) we have cn − 3cn−1 − cn−2 + cn−3 = bn ,

where bn = [xn ] (1 − x).

Thus we have the recursion cn = 3cn−1 + cn−2 − cn−3 + bn

for n ≥ 0,

where b0 = 1, b1 = −1 and bn = 0 otherwise. The ideas are not limited to ratios of polynomials, but then it’s not always clear how to proceed. In the next example, we use the fact that e−x has a simple power series.

Example 10.7 Derangements

In the next chapter, we obtain, as (11.17) the formula

D(x) =

∞ X

n=0

Dn xn /n! =

e−x ; 1−x

10.20

in other words, e−x /(1 − x) is the ordinary generating function for the numbers dn = Dn /n!. We can get rid of fractions in (10.20) by multiplying by (1 − x). Since e−x =

∞ X (−1)n xn , n! n=0

equating coefficients of xn on both sides of (1 − x)D(x) = e−x gives us Dn−1 (−1)n Dn − = . n! (n − 1)! n! Rearranging leads to the recursion Dn = nDn−1 + (−1)n . A direct combinatorial proof of this recursion is known, but it is difficult.

One method for solving a differential equation is to write the unknown function as a power P series y(x) = an xn , use the differential equation to obtain a recursion for the an , and finally use the recursion to obtain information about the an ’s and hence y(x). Here we proceed differently. Sometimes a recursion may lead to a differential equation which can solved to obtain the generating function. Sometimes a differential equation can be found for a known generating function and then be used to obtain a recursion. We consider the latter approach in the next example. What sort of differential equation should we look for? Linear equations with polynomial coefficients give the simplest recursions.

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Example 10.8 A recursion for unlabeled full binary RP-trees In√Example 10.5 we found

that the generating function for unlabeled full binary RP-trees is B(x) = 1− 21−4x . We then obtained √ an explicit formula for bn by expanding 1 − 4x in a power series. Instead, we could obtain a differential equation which would lead to a recursion. We can proceed in various ways to obtain a simple differential equation. One is to observe that 2B(x) − 1 = −(1 − 4x)1/2 and differentiate both sides to obtain 2B 0 (x) = 2(1 − 4x)−1/2 . Multiply by 1 − 4x: 2(1 − 4x)B 0 (x) = 2(1 − 4x)1/2 = −(2B(x) − 1). Thus 2B 0 (x) − 8xB 0 (x) + 2B(x) = 1. Replacing B(x) by its power series we obtain X X X 2nbn xn−1 − 8nbn xn + 2bn xn = 1. P Replacing the first sum by 2(n + 1)bn+1 xn and equating coefficients of xn gives 2(n + 1)bn+1 − 8nbn + 2bn = 0

for n > 0.

After some rearrangement, bn+1 = (4n − 2)bn/(n + 1) for n > 0. We already know that b1 = 1, so we have the initial condition for the recursion. This recursion was obtained in Exercise 9.3.13 (p. 266) by a counting argument.

Derivatives, Averages and Probability P The fact that xA0 (x) = nan xn can be quite useful in obtaining information about averages. We’ll explain how this works and then look at some examples. Let An be a set of objects of size n; for example, some kind of n-long sequences or some kind of n-vertex trees. For each n, make An into a probability space using the uniform distribution: Pr(α) =

1 for all α ∈ An . |An |

(Probability is discussed in Appendix C.) Suppose that for each n we have a random variable Xn on An that counts something; for example, the number of ones in a sequence or the number of leaves on a tree. The average value (average number of ones or average number of leaves) is then E(Xn ). Now let’s look at this in generating function terms. Let an,k be the number of α ∈ An with Xn (α) = k; for example, the number of n-long sequences with k ones or the number of n-vertex trees P with k leaves. Let A(x, y) be the generating function n,k an,k xn y k . By the definition of expectation and simple algebra, P P X X an,k kan,k k kan,k E(Xn ) = k Pr(Xn = k) = k = = Pk . |An | |An | k an,k k

k

Let’s look at the two sums in the last fraction. P P n Since [xn ] A(x, y) = k an,k y k , k an,k = [x ]A(x, 1). P P n = k kan,k y k−1 , Since [xn ] ∂A(x,y) k kan,k = [x ]Ay (x, 1), ∂y where Ay stands for ∂A/∂y. Putting this all together, E(Xn ) =

[xn ] Ay (x, 1) . [xn ] A(x, 1)

10.21

We can use the same idea to compute variance. Recall that var(Xn ) = E(Xn2 ) − E(Xn )2 . Since (10.21) tells us how to compute E(Xn ), all we need is a formula for E(Xn2 ). This is just like the

10.3

Manipulating Generating Functions

285

previous derivation except we need factors of k 2 multiplying an,k . We can get this by differentiating twice: X 2 n ∂(yAy (x, y)) k an,k = [x ] = [xn ](Ayy (x, 1) + Ay (x, 1)). 10.22 ∂y y=1 k

This discussion has all been rather abstract. Let’s apply it.

Example 10.9 Fibonacci sequences What is the average number of ones in an n long sequence of zeroes and ones containing no adjacent ones? We studied these sequences in Example 10.2 (p. 275), where we used the notation Fn . To be more in keeping with the previous discussion, let Let fn,k be P the number of n long sequences containing exactly k ones. We need F (x, y) = n,k fn,k xn y k .

In Example 10.16 we’ll see how to compute F (x, y) quickly, but for now the only tool we have is recursions, so it will take a bit longer. You should be able to extend the argument used to derive the recursion (10.12) to show that

provided we set fn,k to obtain

fn,k = fn−1,k + fn−2,k−1 for n ≥ 2, 10.23 P = 0 when k < 0. Let Fn (y) = k fn,k y k and sum y k times (10.23) over all k Fn (y) = Fn−1 (y) + yFn−2 (y) for n ≥ 2.

10.24

For n = 0 we have only the empty sequence and for n = 1 we have the two sequences 0 and 1. Thus, the initial conditions for (10.24) are F0 (y) = 1 and F1 (y) = 1 + y. Multiplying (10.24) by xn and summing over n ≥ 2, we obtain F (x, y) − F0 (y) − xF1 (y) = x F (x, y) − F0 (y) + x2 yF (x, y). Thus

F (x, y) =

1 + xy . 1 − x − x2 y

10.25

We are now ready to use (10.21). From (10.25), Fy (x, y) =

x(1 − x − x2 y) − (1 + xy)(−x2 ) x = (1 − x − x2 y)2 (1 − x − x2 y)2

and so Fy (x, 1) =

x . (1 − x − x2 )2

Thus [xn ] Fy (x, 1) = [xn−1 ]

1 . (1 − x − x2 )2

This can be expanded by partial fractions in various ways. The easiest method is probably to use √ the ideas and formulas in Appendix D (p. 387), which we now do. With a, b = (1 ± 5)/2, as in Example 10.2, we have 1 1 = . (1 − x − x2 )2 (1 − ax)2 (1 − bx)2 We make use of the relations a + b = 1 ab = −1 and a − b =

√ 5.

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Here are the calculations 1 = 2 (1 − ax) (1 − bx)2

√ !2 √ b/ 5 a/ 5 − 1 − ax 1 − bx

a2 /5 2ab/5 b2 /5 − + (1 − ax)2 (1 − ax)(1 − bx) (1 − bx)2 √ √ a2 /5 2a/5 5 2b/5 5 b2 /5 = + . − + 2 (1 − ax) 1 − ax 1 − bx (1 − bx)2

=

Thus 2a a2 −2 2b b2 −2 (−a)n−1 + √ an−1 − √ bn−1 + (−b)n−1 5 n−1 5 n−1 5 5 5 5 nan+1 2an 2bn nbn+1 = + √ − √ + . 5 5 5 5 5 5

[xn ] Fy (x, 1) =

Since |b| < .62, the last two terms in this expression are fairly small. In fact, we will show that wn is the integer closest to √ an an + 2/ 5 . 5 P Using the expression (10.15) for k fn,k , the average number of ones is very close to n 2 √ + 2. 5a a 5

We must prove our claim about the√smallness of the terms involving b. It suffices to show that their sum is less than 1/2. Since |b| = ( 5 − 1)/2 < 1, we have 2b 2|b|n √ ≤ √ < 0.12. 5 5 5 5 The term n|b|n+1 /5 is a bit more complicated. We study it as a function of n to find its maximum. Its derivative with respect to n is |b|n+1 n ln |b| |b|n+1 |b|n+1 + = (1 + n ln |b|). 5 5 5 Since −0.25 < ln |b| < −0.2, this is positive for n ≤ 4 and negative for n ≥ 5. It follows that the term achieves its maximum at n = 4 or at n = 5. The values of these two terms are 4|b|5 /5 < |b|5 < 0.1 and 5|b|6 /5 < |b|5 < 0.1, proving our claim.

Example 10.10 Leaves in trees What can we say about the number of leaves in n-vertex unlabeled RP-trees? We’ll study the average number of leaves and the variance using (10.21) and (10.22). Let tn,k be the number of unlabeled RP-trees having n vertices and k leaves and let T (x, y) be P n k n,k tn,k x y . Using tools at our disposal, it is not easy to work out the generating function for T (x, y). On the other hand, after you have read the next section, you should be able to show that T (x, y) = xy + xT (x, y) + x(T (x, y))2 + · · · + x(T (x, y))i + · · · ,

where x(T (x, y))i comes from building trees whose roots have degree i. We’ll assume this has been done. Summing the geometric series in (10.25), we have T (x, y) = xy +

xT (x, y) . 1 − T (x, y)

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287

Clearing of fractions and rearranging: (T (x, y))2 − (1 − x + xy)T (x, y) + xy = 0, a quadratic equation in T (, y) whose solution is T (x, y) =

1 − x + xy ±

p p 1 − x + xy ± (1 + x − xy)2 − 4x (1 − x + xy)2 − 4xy = . 2 2

Do we use the plus sign or the minus sign? Since there are no trees with no vertices t0,0 = 0. On the other hand, t0,0 = T (0, 0) =

√ 1± 1 2

and so we want the minus sign. We finally have T (x, y). Let’s multiply be 2 to get rid of the annoying fraction: 1/2 2T (x, y) = 1 − x + xy − (1 + x − xy)2 − 4x .

Differentiating with respect to y, we have

and

−1/2 2Ty (x, y) = x + x(1 + x − xy) (1 + x − xy)2 − 4x

Thus

−1/2 −3/2 2Tyy (x, y) = −x2 (1 + x − xy)2 − 4x + x2 (1 + x − xy)2 (1 + x − xy)2 − 4x . 2T (x, 1) = 1 − (1 − 4x)1/2 ,

2Ty (x, 1) = x + x(1 − 4x)−1/2 ,

2Tyy (x, 1) = −x2 (1 − 4x)−1/2 + x2 (1 − 4x)−3/2 . For n > 2 we have 2[xn ] T (x, 1) = −(−4)n

1/2 , n

2[xn ] Ty (x, 1) = [xn−1 ] (1 − 4x)−1/2 = (−4)n−1

−1/2 , n−1

2[xn ] Tyy (x, 1) = −[xn−2 ] (1 − 4x)−1/2 + [xn−2 ] (1 − 4x)−3/2 −3/2 −1/2 . + (−4)n−2 = −(−4)n−2 n−2 n−2 Let Xn be the number of leaves in a random n-vertex tree and suppose n > 2. Then −1/2 2[xn ] Ty (x, 1) n−1 = E(Xn ) = 2[xn ] T (x, 1) −(−4) 1/2 n =

(−1/2)(−3/2) · · · (−1/2 − (n − 2)) (n − 1)! 4

(1/2)(−1/2) · · · (1/2 − (n − 1)) n!

=

n n! = 4(1/2) (n − 1)! 2

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and, recalling (10.22), E(Xn2 )

2[xn ] Tyy (x, 1) 2[xn ] Ty (x, 1) = + = 2[xn ] T (x, 1) 2[xn ] T (x, 1)

=

(−1/2) · · · (−1/2 − (n − 3)) (n − 2)!

−

−3/2 n−2 42 1/2 n

!

n 2

+

(−3/2) · · · (−3/2 − (n − 3)) (n − 2)!

(1/2) · · · (1/2 − (n − 1)) (1/2) · · · (1/2 − (n − 1)) 42 n! n! n! n! n = 2 − 2 + 4 (1/2)(1/2 − (n − 1)) (n − 2)! 4 (1/2)(−1/2) n! 2 n(n − 1) n n(n − 1) + + = 4(3 − 2n) 4 2 2 n(n − 1) n +n − . = 4 4(2n − 3) 42

Thus

−

−1/2 n−2 42 1/2 n

+

n 2

n2 + n n2 n(n − 1) − − 4 4(2n − 3) 4 n (2n − 3) − (n − 1) n(n − 1) n(n − 2) n − = = . = 4 4(2n − 3) 4(2n − 3) 4(2n − 3)

var(Xn ) = E(Xn2 ) − (E(Xn ))2 =

For large n this is nearly n/8. We’ve shown that the average number of leaves in an RP-tree is n/2 and the variance in the number of leaves is about n/8. By Chebyshev’s inequality (C.3) (p. 385), it follows that, in most large RP-trees, about half the vertices are leaves. More precisely: It is unlikely that

|(number of leaves) − n/2| p n/8

will be large.

By Exercise 5.4.8 (p. 140), every N -vertex full binary tree has exactly N2+1 leaves, very slightly larger than the average over all trees. Since a tree that has many edges out of nonleaf vertices will have more leaves, it would seem that a full binary tree should have relatively few leaves. What is going on? Random RP-trees must have many nonleaf vertices with only one child, counterbalancing those with many children so that the average comes out to be nearly two.

*Example 10.11 Average distance to a leaf What is the average distance to the leaf in a random full binary RP-tree? Before answering this question, we need to say precisely what it means. If T is an unlabeled full binary RP-tree, let d(T ) be the sum of the distances from the root to each of the leaves of the tree. (The distance from the root to a leaf is the number of edges on the unique path joining them.) We want the average value of d(T )/n over all unlabeled n leaf full binary RP-trees. This average can be important because many algorithms involve traversing such trees from the root to a leaf and the time required is proportional to the distance. P Let D(x) = d(T )xw(T ) , where the sum ranges over all unlabeled full binary RP-trees T and P w(T ) is the number of leaves in T . Let B(x) = xw(T ) . By Example 10.5 √ 1 2n − 2 1 21 1 − 1 − 4x n (−4) = . and bn = − B(x) = 2 2 n n n−1 Suppose that T has more than one leaf. Let T1 and T2 be the two principal subtrees of T ; that is, the two trees whose roots are the sons of the root of T . You should be able to show that d(T ) = w(T ) + d(T1 ) + d(T2 ).

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289

Multiply this by xw(T ) and sum over all T with more than one leaf. Since d(•) = 0 and w(T ) = w(T1 ) + w(T2 ), we have X X X D(x) = nbn xn + d(T1 )xw(T1 )+w(T2 ) + d(T2 )xw(T1 )+w(T2 ) n>1

T1 ,T2

T1 ,T2

0

Thus

= xB (x) − x + D(x)B(x) + B(x)D(x).

x x 1 x xB 0 (x) − x √ −x = . = √ −√ D(x) = 1 − 2B(x) 1 − 4x 1 − 4x 1 − 4x 1 − 4x It follows that 1 1 −2 n n−1 n−1 n−1 2 dn = 4 − (−4) = 4 + (−4)n = 4n−1 − nbn n−1 2 n−1 and so the average distance to a leaf is

4n−1 −1 = nbn

4n−1 2n−2 − 1. n−1

√ Using Stirling’s formula, it can be shown that this is asymptotic to πn. This number is fairly small compared to n. We could do much better by limiting ourselves to averaging over certain subclasses of binary RP-trees. For example, we saw in Chapter 8 that if the distances to the leaves of the tree are all about equal, then the average and largest distances are both only about log2 n. Thus, when designing algorithms that use trees as data structures, restricting the shape of the tree could lead to significant savings. Good information storage and retrieval algorithms are designed on this basis.

*Example 10.12 The average time for Quicksort

We want to find out how long it takes to sort a list using Quicksort. Quicksort was discussed briefly in Chapter 8. We’ll review it here. Given a list a1 , a2 , . . . , an , Quicksort selects an element x, divides the list into two parts (greater and less than x) and sorts each part by calling itself. There are two problems. First, we haven’t been specific enough in our description. Second, the time Quicksort takes depends on the order of the list and the way x is chosen at each call. To avoid the dependence on order, we will average over all possible arrangements. We now give a more specific description using x = a1 . Given a list a1 , a2 , . . . , an of distinct elements, we create a new list s1 , s2 , . . . , sn with the following properties.

(a) For some 1 ≤ k ≤ n, sk = a1 . (b) si < a1 for i < k and si > a1 for i > k. (c) The relative order of the elements in the two sublists is the same as in the original list; i.e., if si = ap , sj = aq and either i < j < k or k < i < j, then p < q. It turns out that this can be done with n − 1 comparisons. We now apply Quicksort recursively to s1 , . . . , sk−1 and to sk+1 , . . . , sn . Let qn be the average number of comparisons needed to Quicksort an n long list. Thus q1 = 0. We define q0 = 0 for convenience later. Note that k is the position of a1 in the sorted list. Since the original list is random, all values of k from 1 to n are equally likely. By analyzing the algorithm carefully, it can be shown that all orderings of s1 , . . . , sk−1 are equally likely as are all orderings of sk+1 , . . . , sn . (We will not do this.) Thus, given k, it follows that the average length of time needed to sort both s1 , . . . , sk−1 and sk+1 , . . . , sn is qk−1 + qn−k . Averaging over all possible values of k and remembering to include the original n − 1 comparisons, we obtain n n−1 1X 2X qn = n − 1 + qj , qk−1 + qn−k = n − 1 + n n j=0 k=1

which is valid for n > 0.

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To solve this recursion by generating functions, we should let Q(x) = recursion to get a relation for Q(x). If we simply substitute, we obtain ! ∞ n−1 X 2X n−1+ Q(x) = q0 + qj xn . n n=1 j=0

P

qn xn and use the

10.26

If we try to manipulate this to simplify the double sum over n and j of 2qj xn /n, we will run into problems because of the n in the denominator. How can we deal with this? One approach would be to multiply the original recursion by n before we use it. Another approach, which it turns out is equivalent, is to differentiate (10.26) with respect to x. Which is better? The latter is easier when we have a denominator as simple as n, but the former may be better when we have more complicated expressions. We use the latter approach. Differentiating (10.26), we have ! ∞ ∞ n−1 n−1 ∞ X X X X X 0 qj xn−1 n(n − 1)xn−1 + 2 qj xn−1 = (n − 1)n + 2 Q (x) = n=1

= x

n=1

j=0

1 1−x

00

+2

∞ X k X

qj xk =

k=0 j=0

n=1 j=0

2x 1 + 2Q(x) , (1 − x)3 1−x

where Q(x)/(1 − x) follows either by recognizing that we have a convolution or by applying Exercise 10.1.6 (p. 274). Rearranging, we see that we must solve the differential equation Q0 (x) − 2(1 − x)−1 Q(x) = 2x(1 − x)−3 ,

10.27

which is known as a linear first order differential equation. This can be solved by standard methods from the theory of differential equations. We leave it as an exercise to show that the solution is Q(x) =

−2 ln(1 − x) − 2x + C , (1 − x)2

10.28

where the constant C must be determined by an initial condition. Since Q(0) = q0 = 0, we have C = 0. Using the Taylor series X xk − ln(1 − x) = k and some algebra, one eventually obtains qn = 2(n + 1)

n X 1 − 4n. k

10.29

k=1

Again, details are left as an exercise. Using Riemann sum approximations, we have Z n n n−1 X X1 1 dx < < , k x k 1 k=2

k=1

from which it follows that the summation in (10.29) equals ln n + O (1). It follows that qn = 2n ln n + O(n) as n → ∞.

10.30

This is not quite as small as the result n log2 n that we obtained for worst case merge sorting of a list of length n = 2k ; however, merge sorting requires an extra array but Quicksort does not because the array s1 , . . . , sn can simply replace the array a1 , . . . , an . (Actually, merge sorting can be done “in place” if more time is spent on merging. The Batcher sort is an in place merge sort.) You might like to compare this with Exercise 8.2.10 (p. 238), where we obtained an estimate of 1.78 n ln n for qn .

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291

Exercises 10.3.1. Let D(x) be the “exponential” generating function for the number of derangements as in Example 10.7. You’ll use (10.20) to derive a linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients for D(x). Then you’ll equate coefficients to get a recursion for Dn . (a) Differentiate (1 − x)D(x) = e−x and the use e−x = (1 − x)D(x) to eliminate e−x .

(b) Equate coefficients to obtain Dn+1 = n(Dn + Dn−1 ) for n > 0. What are the initial conditions? 10.3.2.

A “path” of length n is a sequence 0 = u0 , u1 , . . . , un = 0 of nonnegative integers such that uk+1 − uk ∈ {−1, 0, 1} for k < n. Let an be the number of such paths of length n The OGF for an can be shown to be A(x) = (1 − 2x − 3x2 )−1/2 . (a) Show that (1 − 2x − 3x2 )A0 (x) = (1 + 3x)A(x).

(b) Obtain the recursion

(n + 1)an+1 = (2n + 1)an + 3nan−1

for n > 0.

What are the initial conditions? (c) Use the general binomial theorem to expand (1 − (2x + 3x2 ))−1/2 and then the binomial theorem to expand (2x + 3x2 )k . Finally look at the coefficient of xn to obtain an as a sum involving binomial coefficients. 10.3.3. Fill in the steps in the derivation of the average time formula for Quicksort: (a) Solve (10.27) to obtain (10.28) by using an integrating factor or any other method you wish. (b) Obtain (10.29) from (10.28). 10.3.4. In Exercise 10.2.6, you derived the formula T (x) =

1−x−

√

1 − 2x − 3x2 . 2x

Use the methods of this section to derive a recursion for tn that is simpler than the summation in Exercise 10.2.6(a). Hint. Since the manipulations involve a fair bit of algebra, it’s a good idea to check your recursion for tn by comparing it with actual value for small n. They can be determined by constructing the trees.

10.4 The Rules of Sum and Product Before the 1960’s, combinatorial constructions and generating function equations were, at best, poorly integrated. A common route to a generating function was: 1. Obtain a combinatorial description of how to construct the structures of interest; e.g., the recursive description of unlabeled full binary RP-trees. 2. Translate the combinatorial description into equations relating elements of the sequence that Pn−1 enumerate the objects; e.g., bn = k=1 bk bn−k , for n > 1 and b1 = 1.

3. Introduce a generating function for the sequence and substitute the equations into the generating function. Apply algebraic manipulation. 4. The result is a relation for the generating function.

From the 1960’s on, various people have developed methods for going directly from a combinatorial construction to a generating function expression, eliminating Steps 2 and 3. These methods often

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allow us to proceed from Step 1 directly to Step 4. The Rules of Sum and Product for generating functions are basic tools in this approach. We study them in this section. So far we have been thinking of generating functions as being associated with a sequence of numbers a0 , a1 , . . . which usually happen to be counting something. It is often helpful to think more directly about what is being counted. For example, let B be the set of unlabeled full binary RP-trees. For B ∈ B, let w(B) be the number of leaves of B. Then bn is simply the number of B ∈ B with w(B) = n and so X X xw(B) = bn xn = B(x). 10.31 n B∈B We say that B(x) counts unlabeled full binary RP-trees by number of leaves. It is sometimes convenient to refer to the generating function by the set that is associated with it. In this case, the set is B so we use the notation GB (x) or simply GB . Thus, instead of asking for the generating function for the bn ’s, we can just as well ask for the generating function for unlabeled full binary RP-trees (by number of leaves). Similarly, instead of asking for the generating function for Fn , we can ask for the generating function for sequences of zeroes and ones with no adjacent ones (by the length of the sequence). When it is clear, we may omit the phrase “by number of leaves,” or whatever it is we are counting things by. We could also keep track of more than one thing simultaneously, like the length of a sequence and the number of ones. We won’t pursue that now. As noted above, if T is some set of structures (e.g., T = B), we let GT be the generating function for T , with respect to whatever we are counting the structures in T by (e.g., leaves in (10.31)). The Rule of Sum for generating functions is nothing more than a restatement of the Rule of Sum for counting that we developed in Chapter 1. The Rule of Product is a bit more complex. At this point, you may find it helpful to look back at the Rules of Sum and Product for counting: Theorem 1.2 (p. 6) and Theorem 1.3 (p. 8).

Theorem 10.3 Rule of Sum

Suppose a set T of structures can be partitioned into sets T 1 , . . . , T j so that each structure in T appears in exactly one T i . It then follows that GT (x) = GT 1 (x) + · · · + GT j (x). The Rule of Sum remains valid when the number of blocks in the partition T 1 , T 2 , . . . is infinite.

Theorem 10.4 Rule of Product Let w be a function that counts something in structures. Suppose each T in a set T of structures is constructed from a sequence T1 , . . . , Tk of k structures such that (i) the possible structures Ti for the ith choice may depend on previous choices, but the generating function for them does not depend on previous choices, (ii) each structure arises in exactly one way in this process and (iii) if the structure T comes from the sequence T1 , . . . , Tk , then w(T ) = w(T1 ) + . . . + w(Tk ). It then follows that GT (x) =

X

T ∈T

xw(T ) = G1 (x) · · · Gk (x),

where Gi is the generating function for the possible choices for the ith structure. The Rule of Product remains valid when the number of steps is infinite.

10.32

10.4

The Rules of Sum and Product

293

As with the Rule of Product for counting, the available choices for the ith step may depend on the previous choices, but the generating function must not. If the choices at the ith step do not depend on the previous choices, we can think of T as simply a Cartesian product T 1 × · · · × T k . The additivity condition (iii) is needed to insure that multiplication works correctly, namely xw(T ) = xw(T1 ) · · · xw(Tk ) . Weights that count things (e.g., leaves in trees, cycles in a permutation, size of set being partitioned) usually satisfy (iii). This is not always the case; for example, counting the number of distinct things (e.g., cycle lengths in a permutation) is usually not additive. Weights dealing with a maximum (e.g., longest path from root to leaf in a tree, longest cycle in a permutation) do not satisfy (iii).

Proof: We will prove (10.32) by induction on k, starting with k = 2. The induction step is practically trivial—simply group the first k − 1 choices together as one choice, apply the theorem for k = 2 to this grouped choice and the kth choice, and then apply the theorem for k − 1 to the grouped choice. The proof for k = 2 can be obtained by applying of the Rules of Sum and Product for counting as follows. Let ti,j be the number of ways to choose the ith structure so that it contains exactly j of the objects we are counting; that is, the number of ways to choose Ti so that w(Ti ) = j. The number of ways to choose T1 so that it contains j objects AND then choose T2 so that together T1 and T2 contain n objects is t1,j t2,n−j . Thus, the total number of structures in T that contain exactly n objects is n X t1,j t2,n−j . j=0

Multiplying by xn , summing over n and recognizing that we have a convolution, we obtain (10.32) for k = 2. Compare the proof we have just given for k = 2 with the following. By hypotheses (ii) and (iii) of the theorem, X X X xw(T2 ) . xw(T1 ) xw(T ) = T2 ∈T 2 T ∈T T1 ∈T 1 By hypothesis (i), the inner sum equals G2 even though T 2 may depend on T1 . Thus the above expression becomes G1 G2 . While this might seem almost magical, it’s a perfectly valid proof. The lesson here is that it’s often easier to sum over structures than to sum over indices. Passing to the infinite case in the theorems is essentially a matter of taking a limit. We omit the proof.

Example 10.13 Binomial coefficients Let’s apply these theorems to enumerating binomial coefficients. Our structures will be subsets of n and we will be keeping track of the number of elements in a subset; i.e., w(S) = |S|, the number of elements in S. We form all subsets exactly once by a sequence of n choices. The ith choice will be either ∅ (the empty set) or the set {i}. The union of our choices will be a subset. The Rule of Product can be applied. Since w(∅) = 0 and w({i}) = 1, Gi (x) = 1 + x by the Rule of Sum. Thus the generating function for subsets of n by cardinality is (1 + x) · · · (1 + x) = (1 + x)n . Compare this with the derivation in Example 1.14 (p. 19). Because this problem is so simple and because you are not familiar with using our two theorems, you may find the derivation in Example 1.14 easier than the one here. Read on.

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Example 10.14 Counting unlabeled RP-trees Let’s look at unlabeled RP-trees from this new vantage point. If a tree has more that one vertex, let s1 , . . . , sk be the sons of the root from left to right. We can describe such a tree by listing the k subtrees T1 , . . . , Tk whose roots are s1 , . . . , sk . This gives us a k-tuple. Note that T has as many leaves as T1 , . . . , Tk together. In fact, if you look back to the start of Chapter 9, you will see that this is nothing more nor less than the definition we gave there. Let B(x) be the generating function for unlabeled full binary unlabeled RP-trees by number of leaves. By the previous paragraph, an unlabeled full binary RP-tree is either one vertex OR a 2-tuple of unlabeled full binary RP-trees (joined to a new root). Applying the Rules of Sum and Product with j = k = 2, we have which can also be written

GB (x) = x + GB (x) GB (x), B(x) = x + B(x)B(x).

This is much easier than deriving the recursion first—compare this derivation with the one in Example 10.5 (p. 279). Now let’s count arbitrary unlabeled RP-trees. In this case, we cannot count them by leaves because there are an infinite number of trees with just one leaf: any path is such a tree. We’ll count them by vertices. Let T (x) be the generating function. Proceeding as in the previous paragraph, we say that such a tree is either a single vertex, OR one tree, OR a 2-tuple of trees, OR a 3-tuple of trees, and so on. Thus we (incorrectly) write T (x) = x + T (x) + T 2(x) + · · ·. Why is this wrong? We did not apply the Rule of Product correctly. The number of vertices in a tree T is not equal to the total number of vertices in the k-tuple (T1 , . . . , Tk ) that comes from the sons of the root: We forgot that there is one more vertex, the root of T . Let’s do this correctly. Instead of a k-tuple of trees, we have a vertex AND a k-tuple of trees. Thus a tree is either a single vertex, OR a single vertex AND a tree, OR a single vertex AND a 2-tuple of trees, and so on. Now we get (correctly) x , T (x) = x + xT (x) + xT 2 (x) + · · · = 1 − T (x) by the Rules of Sum and Product and the formula for a sum of a geometric series. Multiplying by 1 − T (x), we have T (x) − T 2 (x) = x, which is the same as the equation for B(x). Thus

Theorem 10.5 The number of n vertex unlabeled RP-trees equals the number of n leaf unlabeled full binary RP-trees. This was proved in Example 7.9 (p. 206) by showing that the numbers satisfied the same recursion and in Exercise 9.3.12 (p. 266) by giving a bijection. You should be able to derive T (x) = x + T (x)2 directly from the second definition of RP-trees in Example 7.9 (p. 206) and hence prove the theorem this way. We’ve looked at two extremes: full binary trees (all nonleaf vertices have exactly 2 children) and arbitrary trees (nonleaf vertices can have any number of children). We can study trees in between these two extremes. Let D be a set of positive integers. Let D be those unlabeled RP-trees where the number of children of each vertex lies in D. The two extremes correspond to D = {2} and D = {1, 2, 3, . . .}. If we count these trees by number of vertices, you should be able to show that X GD (x) = x + xGD (x)d . d∈D

In general, we cannot solve this equation; however, we can simplify the sum if the elements of D lie in an arithmetic progression. Our two extremes are examples of this. For another example, suppose D is the set of positive odd integers. Then the sum is a geometric series with first term xGD (x) and ratio GD (x)2 . After some algebra, one obtains a cubic equation for GD (x). We won’t pursue this.

10.4

The Rules of Sum and Product

295

Example 10.15 Balls in boxes

Problems that involve placing unlabeled balls into labeled boxes (or, equivalently, problems that involve compositions of integers), are often easy to do using the Rules of Sum and Product. Let T i be the set of possible ways to put things into the ith box. Let GT i be the generating function which is keeping track of the things in the ith box. Suppose that what can be placed into one box is not dependent on what is placed in other boxes. The Rule of Product (in the Cartesian product form), tells us that we can simply multiply the GT i ’s together. How many ways can we put unlabeled balls into k labeled boxes so that no box is empty? Since there is exactly one way to place j balls in a box for every j > 0 and no ways if j = 0 (since the box may not be empty), we have GT i (x) = 1x0 + 1x1 + 1x2 + · · · =

∞ X

xj =

j=1

x 1−x

for all i. By the Rule of Product, the generating function is x x ··· = xk (1 − x)−k . 1−x 1−x Since

X k + i − 1 X −k xk+i , (−x)i = i i n−1 it follows that the number of ways to distribute n unlabeled balls is n−k = n−1 k−1 , which you found in Exercise 1.5.4 (p. 38). How many solutions are there to the equation z1 + z2 + z3 = n where z1 is an odd positive integer and z2 and z3 are nonnegative integers not exceeding 10? We can think of this as placing balls into boxes where zi balls go into the ith box. Since x GT 1 (x) = x + x3 + x5 + · · · = x 1 + x2 + (x2 )2 + (x2 )3 + · · · = 1 − x2 xk (1 − x)−k = xk

and

GT 2 (x) = GT 3 (x) = 1 + x + · · · + x10 = it follows that the generating function is

1 − x11 , 1−x

1 − x11 1 − x11 x . 2 1−x 1−x 1−x

There isn’t a nice formula for the coefficient of xn . What if we allow positive integer coefficients in our equation? For example, how many solutions are there to z1 + 2z2 + 3z3 = n in nonnegative integers? In this case, put z1 balls in the first box, 2z2 balls in the second and 3z3 balls in the third. Since the number of balls in box i is a multiple of i, GT i (x) = 1/(1 − xi ). By the Rule of Product GT (x) = 1/((1 − x)(1 − x2 )(1 − x3 )). This result can be thought of as counting partitions of the number n where zi is the number of parts of size i. By extending this idea, it follows that, if p(n) is the number of partitions of the integer n, then ∞ X

n=0

p(n)xn =

∞ Y 1 1 1 (1 − xi )−1 . · · · = 1 − x 1 − x2 1 − x3 i=1

So far we have only used the Rules of Sum and Product for single variable generating functions. We need not limit ourselves in this manner. As we will explain:

Observation The Rules of Sum and Product apply to generating functions with any number of variables.

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Suppose we are keeping track of m different kinds of things. Replace w by w, an m long vector wm 1 of integers. Then ~xw~ = xw 1 · · · xm . For example, if we count words by the number of vowels, the number of consonants and the length of the word, w will be a 3 long vector—one component for number of vowels, one for number of consonants and one for total number of letters. In that case, the variables will also form a 3 long vector x. We can replace (10.31) with X

xw(B) = B(x),

B∈B wm 1 where, as we already said, xw means xw 1 · · · xm . The condition on w in the Rule of Product becomes

w(T ) = w(T1 ) + . . . + w(Tk ). Of course, we could choose other indices besides 1, . . . , m for our vectors and even replace some of the xi ’s with other letters. In the next example, we find it convenient to use x = (x0 , x1 ).

Example 10.16 Strings of zeroes and ones

Let’s look at strings of zeroes and ones. It will be useful to have a shorthand notation for writing down strings. The empty string will be denoted by λ. If s is a string, then (s)k stands for the string ss . . . s that consists of k copies of s and (s)∗ stands for the set of strings that consist of any number of copies of s, i.e., (s)∗ = {λ, s, (s)2 , (s)3 , . . .}. When s is simply 0 or 1, we usually omit the parentheses. Thus we write 0∗ and 1k instead of (0)∗ and (1)k . The sequences counted by the Fibonacci numbers, namely those which contain no adjacent ones, can be described by F = 0∗ ∪ (0∗ 1 Z ∗ 0∗ ) where Z = 0∗ 01. This means (a) any number of zeroes OR (b) any number of zeroes AND a one AND any number of sequences of the form Z to be described shortly AND any number of zeroes. A sequence of the form Z is any number of zeroes AND a zero AND a one. You should convince yourself that F does indeed give exactly those sequences which contain no adjacent ones. As you can guess from the ANDs and ORs above, this is just the right sort of situation for the Rules of Sum and Product. What good does such a representation do us?

Observation If this representation gives every pattern in exactly one way, we can mechanically use the Rules of Sum and Product to obtain a generating function.

10.4

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297

For a union (i.e., ∪ or {· · ·}), we are dealing with OR, so the Rule of Sum applies. When symbols appear to be multiplied it means first one thing AND then another, so we can apply the Rule of Product. For a set S, the notation S ∗ means any number of copies of things in S. For example, {0, 1}∗ is the set of all strings of zeroes and ones, including the empty string. If there is a unique way to decompose elements of S ∗ into elements in S, then GS ∗ = G∅ + GS + GS ×S + GS ×S ×S + · · · =

∞ X

k=0

1 (GS )k = . 1 − GS

What’s “unique” decomposition mean? When S = {0, 1}, every string of zeroes and ones has a unique decomposition—just look at each element of the string one at a time. When S = {0, 01, 11} we still have unique decomposition; for example, 110001111101 decomposes uniquely as 11-0-01-11-11-01. We leave it to you to verify that our representation for F gives all the patterns exactly once. Let x0 keep track of zeroes and x1 keep track of ones; that is, the coefficient of xn0 xm 1 in GF (x0 , x1 ) will be the number sequences in F that have n zeroes and m ones. We have 1 1 = = (1 − x0 )−1 1 − G0 1 − x0 1 1 1 − x0 GZ ∗ = G(0∗ 01)∗ = = = −1 ∗ 1 − G0 01 1 − (1 − x0 ) x0 x1 1 − x0 − x0 x1 1 − x0 1 1 1 + x1 1 + x1 = . GF = 1 − x0 1 − x0 1 − x0 − x0 x1 1 − x0 1 − x0 − x0 x1 G0∗ =

We can use this representation to describe and count other sequences; however, the problem can get tricky if we are counting sequences that must avoid patterns more complicated than 11. There are various ways to handle the problem. One method is by the use of sets of recursions, which we’ll discuss in the next chapter. Sequences that can be described in this fashion (we haven’t said precisely what that means) are called regular sequences. They are, in fact, the strings that can be produced by regular grammars, which we saw in Section 9.2 were the strings that can be recognized by finite automata. See Exercise 10.4.19 (p. 304) for a definition and the connection with automata. There is a method for translating finite automata into recursions. We’ll explore this in Example 11.2 (p. 310). We close this section with an example which combines the Rules of Sum and Product with some techniques for manipulating generating functions.

*Example 10.17 Counting certain spanning trees

Let G be a simple graph with V = n∪{0} and the 2n − 1 edges {i, i + 1} (1 ≤ i < n) and {0, j} (1 ≤ j ≤ n). (Draw a picture!) How many spanning trees does G have? We’ll call the number rn . To begin with, what does a spanning tree look like? An arbitrary spanning tree can be built as follows. First, select some of the edges {i, i + 1} (1 ≤ i < n). This gives a graph H with vertex set n. (Some vertices may not be on any edges.) For each component C of H, select a vertex j in C and add the edge {0, j} to our collection. Convince yourself that this procedure gives all the trees. We can imagine this in a different way. Let T be the set of rooted trees of the following form. For each k > 0, let V = k ∪ {0} and let 0 be the root. The tree contains the k − 1 edges {i, i + 1} (1 ≤ i < k) and one edge of the form {0, j} for some 1 ≤ j ≤ k. Join together an ordered list of trees in T by merging their roots into one vertex and relabeling their nonroot vertices 1, 2, . . . in order as shown in Figure 10.1. This process produces each spanning tree exactly once. What we have just described is the perfect setup for the Rules of Sum (on k) and Product (of T with itself k times) when we count the number of vertices other than the vertex 0. Thus, recalling the definition of rn at the start of the example, R =

∞ X

(GT )k =

k=1

∞ X

k=1

Tk =

T . 1−T

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1 1 2 3 1 2 • • • • • • • 0

• 0

1 1 2 3 1 2 • • • • • •

1 2 3 4 5 6 • • • • • •

• 0

• 0

• 0

Figure 10.1 Building a spanning tree from pieces. The pieces on the left are assembled to give the middle figure and are then relabeled to give the right-hand figure.

How many trees in T haveP k nonroot vertices? Exactly k, one for each choice of a vertex to connect ∞ to the root. Thus T (x) = k=1 kxk . We can evaluate this sum by using derivatives as discussed in the previous section: ∞ X d(xk ) x dx k=1 k=0 k=0 X ∞ d (1 − x)−1 x d k = x . x = = x dx dx (1 − x)2

T (x) =

∞ X

kxk =

∞ X

kxk =

k=0

Combining these results gives us

x x (1 − x)2 . R(x) = = x 1 − 3x + x2 1− 2 (1 − x)

10.33

What can we do now to get values for rn ? We have two choices: (a) expand by partial fractions to get an exact value or (b) manipulate (10.33) using the ideas to obtain a √ of the previous section √ recursion. By partial fractions, rn is the integer closest to αn / 5, where α = (3 + 5)/2, which gives us a quick, accurate approximation to rn for large n. We leave the calculations to you and turn our attention to deriving a recursion. Clearing of fractions in (10.33) and equating the coefficients of xn on both sides of the resulting equation gives the recursion r0 = 0,

r1 = 1 and rn = 3rn−1 − rn−2 for n ≥ 2,

10.34

which makes it fairly easy to build a table of rn . Can you prove (10.34) directly; i.e., without using generating functions? It’s a bit tricky. With some thought and experimentation, you may be able to discover the argument.

Exercises 10.4.1. Let T be a collection of structures. Suppose that w(T ) 6= 0 for all T ∈ T . Prove the following results. (a) The generating function for k-lists of structures, with repetitions allowed, is (GT )k . (b) The generating function for lists of structures, with repetitions allowed, is (1 − GT )−1 . Here lists of any length are allowed, including the empty list. (c) If T is a generating function, let F [k] denote the result of replacing all the variables by their kth powers. For example, F [k] (x, y) = F (xk , y k ). Show that the generating function for sets of structures, where each structure must come from T is exp

X ∞

(−1)k−1 GT

k=1

[k]

/k .

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299

Hint. Show that the answer is

Y

(1 + xw(T ) ),

T ∈T

replace (1 + xw(T ) ), with exp ln(1 + xw(T ) ) , expand the logarithm by Taylor’s Theorem and rearrange the terms.

(d) Show that generating function for multisets of structures is

X ∞

exp

k=1

GT

[k]

/k .

10.4.2. Return to Exercise 10.2.4 (p. 280). There we counted the number of sequences of zeros, ones and twos with no adjacent ones and no adjacent twos. Show that part (a) of that exercise can be rewritten as follows. A sequence of the type we want is either • an alternating sequence of ones and twos OR • a sequence of the type we want AND a zero AND an alternating sequence of ones and twos. Here the alternating sequence may be empty. Use this characterization to deduce an equation that can be solved for S(x) 10.4.3. Using the notation introduced in Example 10.16, write out expressions for strings satisfying the following properties. Do this in such a way that each string is generated uniquely and then use your representation to get the generating function for the number of patterns of length n. Finally, obtain a recursion from your generating function. Remember to include initial conditions for the recursion. (a) Strings of zeroes, ones and twos that have do not have the pattern 02 somewhere. Hint. Except possibly for a run of twos at the very start of the string, every 2 must be preceded by a 1 or a 2. (b) Strings of zeroes and ones such that each string of ones is followed by a string of at least k zeroes; i.e., if it starts with a string of zeroes, that can be of any length, but every other string of zeroes must have length at least k. Use the notation 0k to stand for a string of k zeroes. (c) Strings of zeroes and ones such that each maximal string of ones (i.e., its ends are the ends of the sequence and/or zeroes) has odd length. 10.4.4. Let qn be the number of partitions of n with no repeated parts allowed and, as usual, let pn be all partitions of n. Let q0 = 1. (a) Show that Q(x) =

∞ X

n=0

qn xn =

∞ Y

(1 + xi ).

i=1

(b) Let P (x) be the generating function for partitions of a number. Show that Q(−x) P (x) = 1. Equate coefficients of xn for n > 0 and then rearrange to avoid subtractions. Interpret the rearranged result combinatorially. Can you give a direct proof of it? (c) Let qn,k (resp. pn,k ) be the partitions counted in qn (resp. pn ) in which no part exceeds k. P P n n Obtain formulas for n≥0 pn,k x . n≥0 qn,k x and

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10.4.5. Let a “pile” be, roughly, a two dimensional stack of square blocks resting on a flat surface, with each block directly on top of another and each row not having gaps. A more formal definition of a pile of height h is a sequence of 2h integers such that 0 = a 1 ≤ a 2 ≤ · · · ≤ a h < bh ≤ · · · ≤ b2 ≤ b1 . Here a block has width 1 and, counting rows with the first row on the bottom, the left end of row i is at ai and the right end is at bi . The number of blocks in the ith row is bi − ai and the total number Ph of blocks in the pile is s be the number of n-block piles and sn,h the number of i=1 (bi − ai ). Let Pn n P n those of height h. Obtain a formula for sn x and n≥0 sn,h x . Hint. The generating function for partitions with no part exceeding k will be useful. 10.4.6. Let a1 < a2 < · · · < ak be a k element subset of n = {1, 2, . . . , n}. We will study subsets with restrictions on the ai . (a) Let a0 = 0. By looking at ai − ai−1 , show that there is a bijection between k element subsets of n and k long sequences of positive integers with sum not exceeding n. (b) Let un be the number of k element subsets of n. Use (a) to show that U (x) =

X i≥1

(Do not use the fact that

−k−1 n−k

=

xi

k X i≥0

n n−k

xi =

xk . (1 − x)k+1

.)

(c) Let tn be the number of k element subsets a1 < a2 < · · · of n such that i and ai have the same parity. In other words a2j is even and a2j+1 is odd. Show that T (x) =

(1 + x)xk 1 xk . = 2 k (1 − x ) 1 − x (1 − x2 )k+1

(d) Let bxc be the result of rounding x down; e.g., b3.5c = 3. Show that tn =

b(n+k)/2c . k

(e) We call (ai , ai+1 ) a succession if they differ by one. Let sn,j be the number of k element subsets of n with exactly j successions. Show that S(x, y) =

(f) Show that

P

xk (x + y(1 − x))k−1 x 1 . (xy + x2 + x3 + · · ·)k−1 = 1−x 1−x (1 − x)k+1

n≥0 sn,j x

n

=

k−1 j

x2k−j−1 (1 − x)−(k+1−j) .

(g) Express sn,j as a product of two binomial coefficients. Check your result by listing all 4 element subsets of {1, . . . , 6} and determining how many successions they have. 10.4.7. Recall that a binary RP-tree to be an RP-tree where each vertex may have at most two sons. The set T of such trees was studied in Exercise 10.2.6, where we counted them by number of vertices. (a) Using the Rules of Sum and Product, derive the relation T (x) = x + xT (x) + xT (x)2 that led to √ 1 − x − 1 − 2x − 3x2 T (x) = 2x in Exercise 10.2.6 (b) Discuss how you might compute the number of such trees. In particular, can you find a simple expression as a function of n? 10.4.8. Change the definition in Exercise 10.4.7 so that, if a node has just one son, then we distinguish whether or not it is a right or a left son. (This somewhat strange sounding distinction is sometimes important.) How many such trees are there with n internal vertices?

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301

10.4.9. A rooted tree will be called “contractible” if it has a vertex with just one son since one can imagine combining that vertex’s information with the information at its son. (a) Find the generating function for the number of unlabeled noncontractible RP-trees, counting them by number of vertices. (b) Find the generating function for the number of unlabeled noncontractible RP-trees, counting them by number of leaves. (c) Obtain a linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients and thence a recursion from each of the generating functions in this problem. Hint. Solve for the square root, differentiate, multiply by the square of the square root and then replace the square root that remains. 10.4.10. Let tn,k be the number of RP-trees with n leaves and k internal vertices (i.e., nonleaves). (a) Find a generating function for T (x, y). (b) Using the previous result, prove that tn,k = tk,n when n + k > 1. Hint. Compare T (x, y) and T (y, x). *(c) Find a bijection that proves tn,k = tk,n when n + k > 1; that is, find a map from RP-trees to RP-trees that carries leaves to internal vertices and vice versa for trees with more than one vertex. Write out your bijection for RP-trees with 5 vertices. Hint. Describe the construction recursively (or locally). 10.4.11. Let D be a set of nonnegative integers such that 0 ∈ D. For this exercise, we’ll say that an RP-tree is of outdegree D if the number of sons of each vertex lies in D. Thus, full binary RP-trees are of outdegree {0, 2}. (a) Let TD (x) be the generating function for unlabeled RP-trees of outdegree D by number of vertices. Prove that TD (x) = x

X

TD (x)d

d∈D

(b) Show that the previous formula allows us to compute TD (x) recursively. (c) Let LD (x) be the generating function for unlabeled RP-trees of outdegree D by number of leaves. Show that it doesn’t make sense to talk about LD (x) when 1 ∈ D, that LD (x) =

X

d∈D

LD (x)d − 1 + x,

and that this allows us to compute LD (x) recursively when 1 ∈ / D. 10.4.12. We have boxes labeled with pairs of numbers like (2, 6). The labels have the form (i, j) for 1 ≤ i ≤ 3 and 1 ≤ j ≤ k. Thus we have 3k boxes. Unlabeled balls are placed into the boxes. This must be done so that the number of balls in box (i, j) is a multiple of i and, for each j, the total number of balls in boxes (1, j), (2, j) and (3, j) is at most 5. What is the generating function for the number of ways to place n balls? Hint. Find the generating function for placing balls into (1, ∗), (2, ∗) and (3, ∗) and then use the Rule of Product. *10.4.13. An unlabeled full binary rooted tree is like the ordered (i.e., plane) situation except that we make no distinction between left and right sons. Let βn be the number of such trees with n leaves and let P B(x) = βn xn . Show that B(x) = x + (B(x)2 + B(x2 ))/2.

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Figure 10.2 A path for n = 4 for Exercise 10.4.14.

10.4.14. Imagine the plane with lines like a sheet of graph paper; i.e., the lines x = k and the lines y = k are drawn in for all integers k. Think of the intersections of the lines vertices and the line segments connecting them as edges. The portion of the plane with 0 ≤ x ≤ n and 0 ≤ y ≤ n is then a simple graph with (n + 1)2 vertices. Let an be the number of paths from the vertex (0, 0) to the vertex (n, n) that never go down or left and that remain above the line x = y except at (0, 0) and (n, n). Figure10.2 shows such a path for n = 4. We could describe such a path more formally as a sequence (xi , yi ) of pairs of nonnegative integers such that x0 = y0 = 0, x2n = y2n = n, xi < yi for 0 < i < 2n and (xi , yi ) − (xi−1 , yi−1 ) equals either (1, 0) or (0, 1). Draw some pictures to see what this looks like. (a) Show that an is the number of sequences s1 , . . . , s2n containing exactly n −1’s and n 1’s such that s1 + · · · + sk > 0 for 0 < k < 2n. (b) By looking at s2 , . . . , s2n−1 for n > 1, conclude that A(x) = x +

P

k≥1

x A(x)k .

(c) Determine sn . Note that this number is the same as the number of unlabeled full binary RP-trees with n leaves, which is the same as the number of unlabeled RP-trees with n vertices. *(d) In the previous part, you concluded that the set S n of paths of a certain type from (0, 0) to (n, n) has the same size as the set T n of unlabeled RP-trees with n vertices. Find a bijection fn : S n → T n , and thus prove this equality without the use of generating functions. 10.4.15. Fix a set S of size s. For n ≥ 1, let an,k be the number of n long ordered lists that can be made using S so that we never have more than k consecutive identical entries in the list. Thus, P with k ≥ n there is no restraint while with k = 1 adjacent entries must be different. Let Ak (x) = n≥0 an,k xn . There are various approaches to Ak (x).

(a) By considering the last run of identical entries in the list and using the Rules of Sum and Product, show that Ak (x) = s(x + x2 + · · · + xk ) + Ak (x)(s − 1)(x + x2 + · · · + xk ).

(b) Find an explicit formula for Ak (x). (c) Show that an+1,k = san,k − (s − 1)an−k,k for n > k by using the generating function. (d) Derive the previous recursion by a direct argument.

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303

10.4.16. We claim that the set of sequences of zeroes and ones that do not contain either 101 or 111 is described by

0∗ ∪ 0∗ (1 ∪ 11) 000∗ (1 ∪ 11)

∗ ∗ 0

and each such sequence has a unique description. You need not verify this. Let an be the number of such sequences of length n and let A(x) be the generating function for an . (a) Derive the formula A(x) =

1+x+2x2 +x3 . 1−x−x3 −x4

(b) Using A(x), obtain the recursion an = an−1 + an−3 + an−4 for n ≥ 4 and find the initial conditions. (c) Using 1 − x − x3 − x4 = (1 − x − x2 )(1 + x2 ), derive the formula an

7Fn+1 + 4Fn − bn = 5

where

bn =

2(−1)n/2 , (−1)(n−1)/2 ,

if n is even, if n is odd,

where the Fibonacci numbers are given by F0 = 0, F1 = 1 and Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 for n ≥ 2; x that is, their generating function is 1−x−x 2. (d) Prove that 2 a2n = Fn+2

and

a2n+1 = Fn+2 Fn+3

for n ≥ 0.

Hint. Show that the recursion and initial conditions are satisfied. 10.4.17. Using partial fractions, obtain a formula for rn from (10.33). *10.4.18. Let G be the simple graph with vertex set n ∪ {0} and the 2n edges {n, 1}, {i, i + 1} (1 ≤ i < n) and {0, j} (1 ≤ j ≤ n), except for n = 1, 2 where we must avoid adding {n, 1} in order to get a simple graph. In other words, G is like the graph in Example 10.17 except that one more edge {1, n} has been added so that the picture looks like a wheel with spokes for n > 2. We want to know how many spanning trees G has. (a) Let T be as in Example 10.17 and let T 0 consist of the trees in T with one of the nonroot vertices marked. Choose one tree from T 0 and then a, possibly empty, sequence of trees from T . Suppose we have a total of n nonroot vertices. Merge the root vertices and relabel the nonroot vertices 1 to n, starting with the marked vertex in the tree from T 0 and preceding cyclically until all nonroot vertices have been labeled. Explain why this gives all the spanning trees exactly once. (b) Show that GT 0 (x) = x(d/dx)(GT (x)) = x(1 + x)/(1 − x)3 . (c) Show that generating function for the spanning trees is x(1 + x) . (1 − x)(1 − 3x + x2 ) (d) Show that the number of spanning trees is 2rn+1 −3rn −2, where rn is given in Example 10.17.

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10.4.19. We define a set of regular sequences (or regular strings) on the “alphabet” A. (An alphabet is any finite set.) Let R, R1 , and R2 stand for sets of regular strings on A. The sets of regular strings on A are the empty set, the sets {a} where a ∈ A, and the sets that can be built recursively using the following operations: • union (“or”) of sets, i.e., the set of all strings that belong to either R1 or R2 ;

• juxtaposition (“and then”), i.e., the set of all strings r1 r2 where r1 ∈ R1 and r2 ∈ R2 ;

• arbitrary iteration R∗ , i.e., for all n ≥ 0, all strings of the form r1 r2 . . . rn where ri ∈ R. (The empty string is obtained when n = 0.) See Example 10.16 for a specific example of a set of regular sequences The purpose of this exercise is to construct a nondeterministic finite automaton that recognizes any given set of regular strings. Nondeterministic finite automata are defined in Section 6.6 (p. 189). We will build up the machine by following the way the strings are built up. (a) Let A be an automaton. Show that there is another automaton S(A) that recognizes the same strings and has no edges leading into the start state. Hint. Create a new state, let it be the start state and let it have edges to all of the states the old start state did. Remember to specify the accepting states, too. (b) If A recognizes the set A and B recognizes the set B, construct and automaton that recognizes the set A ∪ B. Hint. Adjust the idea in (a). (c) If A recognizes A, construct an automaton that recognizes A∗ . Hint. Add some edges. (d) If A recognizes the set A and B recognizes the set B, construct and automaton that recognizes AB; i.e., the set A × B.

Notes and References The classic books on generating functions are those by MacMahon [6] and Riordan [7]. They are quite difficult reading and do not take a “combinatorial” approach to generating functions. There are various combinatorial approaches. Some can be found in the texts by Wilf [10] and Stanley [9, Ch. 3] and in the articles by Bender and Goldman [1] and Joyal [5]. The articles are rather technical. Parts of the texts by Greene and Knuth [4] and by Graham, Knuth and Patashnik [3] are oriented toward computer science uses of generating functions. See also the somewhat more advanced text by Sedgewick and Flajolet [7]. Wilf [10] gives a nice introduction to generating functions. Goulden and Jackson’s book [2] contains a wealth of material on generating functions, but is at a higher level than our text. We have studied only the simplest sorts of recursions. Recursions that require more sophisticated methods are common as are recursions that cannot be solved exactly. Sometimes approximate solutions are possible. We don’t know of any systematic exposition of techniques for such problems. We have not dealt with the problem of defining formal power series; that is, defining a generating function so that the convergence of the infinite series is irrelevant. An introduction to this can be found in the first few pages of Stanley’s text [9]. 1. Edward A. Bender and Jay R. Goldman, Enumerative uses of generating functions, Indiana Univ. Math. J. 20 (1971), 753–765. 2. Ian P. Goulden and David M. Jackson, Combinatorial Enumeration, Dover (2004). 3. Ronald L. Graham, Donald E. Knuth and Oren Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading (1994). 4. Daniel H. Greene and Donald E. Knuth, Mathematics for the Analysis of Algorithms, 3rd ed., Birkh¨auser (1990).

Notes and References

305

5. Andr´e Joyal, Une th´eorie combinatoire des s´eries formelles, Advances in Math. 42 (1981), 1-82. 6. Percy Alexander MacMahon, Combinatory Analysis, Chelsea, New York, 1960. Reprint of two volume Cambridge Univ. Press edition (1915, 1916). 7. John Riordan, An Introduction to Combinatorial Analysis, Princeton Univ. Press (1980). 8. Robert Sedgewick and Philippe Flajolet, An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, AddisonWesley (1996). 9. Richard P. Stanley, Enumerative Combinatorics, vols. 1 and 2. Cambridge Univ. Press (1999, 2001). 10. Herbert S. Wilf, Generatingfunctionology, 2nd ed., Academic Press (1993).

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