Sep 18, 2015 - Erik Sigmund 1,*, Dagmar Sigmundová 1,†, Petr Badura 1,†, Michal ...... pdf_file/0008/98243/E89858.pdf?ua=1 (accessed on 18 July 2015).
Jul 10, 2013 - Tendência do baixo peso, sobrepeso e obesidade de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Resumo. Objetivo: Descrever e analisar a tendência da ocorrência do baixo peso, sobrepeso e obesidade de escolares. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de
Apr 24, 2013 - Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index ...
Jan 5, 2009 - Within the obese category, 4670 patients (7.7% of all patients and 33.1% of obese patients) met criteria for being severely obese. Demographic characteristics of each group are listed in Table 1. Of the black children,. 18.1% were overw
We investigated prevalence trends in overweight/obesity and obesity ... expected to slow or even reverse to a decrease in the next ... age, and geographic area, using household registries. ..... Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through.
of Chinese large coastal cities, a significant increase was found in their prevalence from 2007 to 2011 and ..... more, many sports infrastructures had been built.
Evolução anual da prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade em adultos nas capitais ... de peso na população adulta das 27 cidades monitoradas pelo VIGITEL aumentou de 43,2% (2006) para 51,0% ..... Organização Mundial de Saúde.
Nov 20, 2012 - Correspondence: [email protected] ... London, UK ...... Award from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and by the National ... Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K: Educational level,.
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Dec 29, 2014 - Xianjia Ning1,2*, Changqing Zhan1,2, Yihe Yang3, Li Yang2, Jun Tu1,2, ... of Epidemiology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin, China, 2.
Jul 4, 2012 - Prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI â¥25 kg/m2), obesity (BMI â¥30 kg/m2 and central obesity ..... NHANES I and community obstetrics.
Aug 12, 2015 - China, 2 Tianjin Women's and Children's Health Center, Tianjin, China, ... From 2006 to 2014, mean values of height z-scores significantly increased from 0.34 to ... dents Constitution and Health has reported that the prevalence of ...
est on the part of governmental agencies and profes- sional organizations ... Jackson, MS 39216-4505 (E-mail: [email protected]). 166 .... Table 1. Prevalence of Overweight in Adults Aged 20 Years and Oldera. 1976 â 80 ..... discussed in this s
Results of the German Health Interview and .... the results reported in previous pub- ... and medians (5th and 95th percentile) of anthropometric measurements in the adult German ... Women. Means (95% CI). Body height (cm). 165.8. (165.1â166.4). 16
Vasselai P., Draibe SA., Cuppari L. (2008): Waist Circumference and Visceral Fat in. CKD: A Cross-sectional Study. Am. J. Kidney Dis.; 52(1): 66â73. 5. Hoehner ...
olecranon processes as described by ISAK 28. Two readings were .... 7.0(8). 0. 4.4(5). 0.9(1). 1.8(2). Quite number of adolescents (0-8.1% in males and 1.3-8.1% in females) are overweight in either IOTF or CDC cutoff point, indicating that to some ex
Cancer Control Policy, Canadian Cancer Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 3. ...... index Â§ 30 kg/m2) in Canadian adults .... tion and treatment of Helicobacter pylori bacterium infection, a key stomach cancer ..... NIH consensus conference.
infertility treatments. Despite concerns regarding costs, there are few studies on econ- omics of infertility treatment in overweight and obese women. Our.
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Ecuador, like many countries in the Americas, has seen a rise in the prevalence of overweight and obe- sity. Yet data in Ecuador on these chronic nutri- tional disorders are scarce. A review of the data that have been reported, however, suggests that
intervenciÃ³n para la promociÃ³n de actividad fÃsica en niÃ±os ... Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Ogden CL, Dietz WH. ... Overweight in young Latino children ...
nearest 0.1 kilogram with a Mettler Toledo VLC with Panther Plus terminal scale (Mettler Toledo Canada, Mississauga, Canada). Body mass index was derived ...
Aug 7, 2014 - The levels of PYY rise within 15 minutes after food intake, resulting in reduced ..... puberty (56). Obesity accelerates statural growth and causes advancement of the bone age. Thyroid function aberrations are frequently encountered as
combination of Service Design and Competitive Intelligence methodologies. The aim is to generate a unique and inno- vative service tailored to customer needs. Keywords: Innovation; Obesity; Overweight; Service Design; Nutrition Education; Competitive
Overweight and Obesity Mortality Trends in Canada, 1985-2000 Peter T. Katzmarzyk1,2 Christopher I. Ardern1
ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the temporal trends in the mortality burden attributed to overweight and obesity in Canada between 1985 and 2000. Design: Overweight and obesity prevalence data from six cross-sectional national population surveys, including the 1985 and 1990 Health Promotion Surveys, 1994, 1996 and 1998 National Population Health Surveys, and 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey, in conjunction with one published prospective cohort study on overweight, obesity and mortality. Participants: Adults 20-64 years of age. Main Outcome Measure: The number of deaths attributable to overweight and obesity at the national and provincial levels. Attributable deaths were estimated using the Population Attributable Risk (PAR), which combined the prevalence data with the relative risks of mortality associated with overweight and obesity. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted by simultaneously varying the population prevalences and relative risk estimates by ±10%. Results: Between 1985 and 2000, the national PAR for overweight and obesity increased from 5.1% to 9.3%, and the annual number of deaths attributable to overweight and obesity increased from 2,514 (966 – 4,061) to 4,321 (2,114 – 6,542). Cumulatively, 57,181 (25,075 - 89,227) deaths were attributed to overweight and obesity between 1985 and 2000. Although overweight- and obesity-related mortality is increasing in every province, the problem is particularly pronounced in Eastern Canada. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are important public health problems in Canada, accounting for approximately 57,000 deaths over the last 15 years. Immediate and sweeping public health campaigns and interventions are required to slow or reverse the recent trends.
La traduction du résumé se trouve à la fin de l’article. Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario 1. School of Physical and Health Education 2. Department of Community Health and Epidemiology Correspondence: Peter T. Katzmarzyk, School of Physical and Health Education, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Tel: 613-533-6000 ext.75210, Fax: 613-533-2009, E-mail: [email protected] Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario. 16
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everal recent studies have documented substantial increases in the prevalences of overweight and obesity in Canada over the past two decades; similar to what has been observed in other developed countries. 1-5 The adverse health effects associated with an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue have also been recently summarized, and include an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, stroke, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, and several cancers.6 It has been estimated that the direct health care costs associated with obesity in Canada were $1.8 billion in 1997.7 In addition to specific health issues, overweight and obese individuals have an elevated risk of mortality by comparison to those of normal weight.8,9 However, only limited attempts to quantify the impact of overweight and obesity on population mortality rates have been made. For example, it has been estimated that between 280,000 and 325,000 deaths annually are attributed to obesity in the United States in the 1990s among adults 18 years of age and older.10 The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of overweight and obesity on mortality rates in the Canadian population between 1985 and 2000. To this end, obesity surveillance data for the population were analyzed in combination with a recently published mortality followup study in the Canadian population. METHODS
The annual numbers of overweight- and obesity-related deaths in Canada among adults were determined using the Population Attributable Risk (PAR), which combines the population prevalence of a risk factor with the relative risk of mortality associated with that risk factor. The body mass index (BMI) categories of overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), obese I (3034.9 kg/m2), and obese II and III (≥35 kg/m 2 ) adopted by the U.S. National Institutes of Health6 and World Health Organization11 were used. The PAR was calculated separately for overweight, obese class I and obese class II and III and then added, using the following equation: PAR = ∑[P(RR-1)/RR], where P is the population prevalence of overweight or obesity class and RR is the relative risk of mortality.12,13 Calculation of the PAR allowed for VOLUME 95, NO. 1
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Overweight and obesity prevalences The prevalences of overweight, obese class I and obese class II and III were determined in six national surveys conducted in Canada between 1985 and 2000, including the 1985 and 1990 Health Promotion Surveys, 14,15 the 1994, 1996, and 1998 National Population Health Surveys,16-18
4500 9.4% 8.7% 8.4%
3500 6.8% 3000
Number of overweight- and obesity-related deaths in Canada among adults 20-64 years of age, 1985-2000. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR) for overweight and obesity is indicated above the points for each year.
Year of Survey
4000 Number of Overweightand Obesity-Related Deaths
examination of the secular trend of overweight and obesity on all-cause mortality as a way to quantify the excess mortality associated with these conditions, and can be interpreted as the percent of all mortality that is potentially preventable if all cases of overweight or obesity were eliminated. The PARs for overweight and obesity were derived based on their association with allcause mortality alone, and no inferences can be made regarding specific causes of death. Due to age restrictions in some surveys, data were available only for adults 20-64 years of age. Thus, elderly mortality due to obesity was not considered in this study.
Standardized death rates per 100,000 population Figure 2.
Adult overweight and obesity mortality maps of Canada, 1985-2000. Data are for adults 20-64 years of age from the 1985 and 1990 General Social Surveys, 1994, 1996, and 1998 National Population Health Surveys and the 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey.
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TABLE I Sample Sizes and Weighted National Prevalences of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults 20-64 Years of Age in the Surveys Used in the Derivation of the Number of Overweight- and Obesity-related Deaths in Canada, 1985-2000 Survey
1985 Health Promotion Survey 1990 Health Promotion Survey 1994 National Population Health Survey 1996 National Population Health Survey 1998 National Population Health Survey 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey
8,106 10,456 12,318 50,347 10,683 131,535
Obese I Obese II & III (%) (%)
26.1 30.8 34.0 35.4 34.4 32.5
4.6 7.4 11.3 10.8 11.1 11.0
0.9 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.7 3.9
TABLE II Estimates of the Relative Risk of Mortality Associated with Overweight and Obesity Used in the Present Study
Normal Weight Overweight Obese Class I Obese Class II & III
95% Confidence Interval
1.00 1.16 1.25 2.96
(reference) (0.96-1.39) (0.96-1.65) (1.39-6.29)
Relative risks have been adjusted for the confounding influences of gender, age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Note: The relative risks are based on analyses of 13 years of follow-up from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (Adapted from reference 9)
and the 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey.19 Table I presents the sample sizes and national prevalences of overweight and obesity for each survey. The BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight in each survey, and the prevalences were weighted to be representative of the population at the time the survey was conducted using sample weights provided with the publicly available datasets. Data for the territories were only available in the 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey, and were pooled across the three territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) due to small sample sizes for class II and class III obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) which led to data restrictions. Overweight and obesity mortality risk A recent study has estimated the relative risk of mortality across levels of overweight and obesity in 10,725 adults from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), which was representative of the Canadian population.9 The 13-year risk of mortality was determined by linking the CFS database to the Canadian Mortality Database at Statistics Canada. Table II presents a summary of the relative risk estimates associated with overweight, class I, and class II and III obesity, compared to normal weight from the study.9 These values were used in the derivation of the PAR in the present 18
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study. The relative risk estimates have been adjusted for age, gender, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. It should be noted that the low prevalence of class III obese participants necessitated the combination of class II and class III obesity in both the published mortality analysis and in the present study. Statistical analysis The PAR for each survey year (1985, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000) was multiplied by the total annual number of deaths from all-causes in each province in 20 to 64 year olds, obtained from CANSIM, a national database of selected demographic and social data, such as population estimates and vital statistics.20 The deaths attributable to overweight and obesity were then standardized to a death rate per 100,000 population to facilitate comparisons across provinces. Least squares regression of overweight and obesity-related deaths from the six measured PARs allowed for interpolation to non-study years and provides our best estimate of the cumulative number of overweight and obesity-related deaths in Canada over 15 years. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted by simultaneously varying the relative risk estimates and population prevalences of overweight, obesity class I and obesity class II and III by ±10%.
RESULTS The number of overweight- and obesityrelated deaths in Canada has increased from 2,514 in 1985 to 4,321 in 2000 (Figure 1). The sensitivity analysis indicates that the number of deaths in 1985 could be as low as 966 and as high as 4,061, and the number of deaths in 2000 could be as low as 2,114 and as high as 6,542. The PAR has increased from 5.1% to 9.3%, indicating that by 2000, 9.3% of all deaths among 20 to 64 year old adults could theoretically be attributed to overweight and obesity. The total accumulated deaths between 1985 and 2000, estimated by interpolating a least squares regression line between the year of the surveys and number of deaths, was 57,181 (25,075 – 89,227). Figure 2 presents overweight and obesity mortality surveillance maps showing provincial-level results. It is apparent that the burden of obesity has increased in all geographic regions between 1985 and 2000; however, the Eastern provinces have consistently higher death rates than other regions of Canada. The province with the greatest relative increase in the number of overweight- and obesity-related deaths was Newfoundland, with a 58.9% increase over 15 years, whereas the province with the lowest relative increase was British Columbia, increasing 33.0%. DISCUSSION This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document the direct effects of overweight and obesity on premature mortality rates in Canada at the population level. The results demonstrate significant increases in the mortality burden associated with overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2000. Previous studies have shown that the prevalences of overweight and obesity have increased over the past two decades in Canada; however, overweight and obesity are typically considered to be “conditions” or risk factors that predispose individuals to chronic disease, rather than diseases in and of themselves. As such, increases in their prevalence do not carry the same public health message as increases in disease or mortality rates. The absolute number of deaths attributable to overweight and obesity in Canada VOLUME 95, NO. 1
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in 2000 is relatively low (4,321) compared to the estimated 300,000 deaths in the United States;10 however, the two estimates are not directly comparable. The present study only included deaths among adults 20-64 years of age, whereas the U.S. study included all deaths among adults 18+ years of age. Given the high overall death rates among the elderly, compared to younger adults, this would have a large impact on the results. We chose a conservative approach by focusing on premature mortality, as the relationship between BMI and mortality in the elderly has not been fully explored.21 Further, the higher prevalence of obesity, particularly class II and III obesity in the U.S., have also influenced the comparison. Although the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in all provinces from 1985-2000,3 an alternative explanation for regional variations in overweight and obesity-related mortality rates may be the observed differences in overall provincial death rates over this time; Prince Edward Island had the lowest reduction in all-cause death rate from 1985-2000, with a reduction of 6.4%, whereas Ontario had the greatest improvement, representing a reduction of 32.8%. These regional disparities in all-cause death rates not only identify at-risk populations within Canada, but present important information about the relative impact of obesity on health-care disparities. For diseases associated with overweight and obesity, the influence of socio-economic status and level of education are intricately linked; in particular, any attempts at addressing the issue of overweight and obesity must be targeted towards the specific needs of the population, with overweight and obesity being one of the predisposing if not causal factors in subsequent disease development and progression. Overweight and obesity surveillance data are not available for the Yukon, Northwest, and Nunavut territories in the public-use Health Promotion Survey and National Population Health Survey databases. Thus, the high overweight and obesity mortality rates observed in 2000 does not indicate a drastic increase from 1998 levels, rather that BMI surveillance in the territories was not available until the 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey. Although the overweight and obesityJANUARY – FEBRUARY 2004
related mortality rate for the Territories is the highest in Canada (34.9/100,000), it is unlikely that this has influenced the estimated number of deaths for Canada in 2000 (by comparison to earlier years), given that this accounted for only 21 overweight and obesity-related deaths due to the small population sizes in Northern Canada. This study has several strengths and weaknesses. A major strength is the combination of several national surveys with a Canadian mortality follow-up study, which ensures a certain degree of representativeness for the Canadian population. The ability to estimate changes in the number of overweight and obesity-related deaths over the 15 years is also a major strength of the study design. The choice of the PAR equation used in studies such as this will impact the interpretation of the results. We chose an equation that provides a conservative estimate of the population impact of obesity (PAR = ∑[P(RR-1)/RR]), as it produces an internally valid estimate when adjusted relative risks are used (as in the present study).13 If another popular population equation had been used (PAR = [∑(P)(RR-1)]/[1+∑(P)(RR-1)]), a greater impact would have been observed. For example, the equation used in the present study indicates that 4,321 deaths were attributable to overweight and obesity in 2000; had the alternative equation been used, 6,301 would have been attributable to obesity. However, the latter estimate is biased due to confounding in the relative risk of overweight and obesity. A limitation in the present study is the use of overweight and obesity prevalences calculated from self-reported data, as individuals tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight, and the degree of under-reporting for body weight increases with the level of BMI. 22,23 Analyses using self-reported data tend to underestimate the prevalence of obesity by comparison to prevalences calculated using measured heights and weights. For example, data from the latest U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000) indicate that the prevalence of obesity in the United States was 30.5%.4 However, self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) indicated that the prevalence of obesity was 19.8%
in 2000.24 Thus, the results reported in the present study should be considered conservative estimates of the impact of overweight and obesity on mortality. In conclusion, the results of this study have quantified the impact of overweight and obesity on mortality in Canada. The finding that almost 1 in 10 premature deaths among adults 20 to 64 years of age can be attributed to overweight and obesity in 2000 indicates that this is a substantial health problem, especially in the Northern and Eastern regions of Canada. Aggressive public health campaigns are required to increase public awareness of the health risks associated with excess body weight and to combat further increases in the prevalence and burden of obesity in Canada. REFERENCES 1. Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT, Willms JD. Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981-1996. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:538-43. 2. Torrance GM, Hooper MD, Reeder BA. Trends in overweight and obesity among adults in Canada (1970-1992): Evidence from national surveys using measured height and weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:797-804. 3. Katzmarzyk PT. The Canadian obesity epidemic, 1985-1998. CMAJ 2002;166:1039-40. 4. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002;288:1723-27. 5. Seidell JC. Obesity in Europe: Scaling an epidemic. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995;19 Suppl 3:S1-S4. 6. NIH. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults – The evidence report. Obes Res 1998;6(Suppl.2):51S-209S [published erratum appears in Obes Res 1998;Nov 6(6):464]. 7. Birmingham CL, Muller JL, Palepu A, Spinelli JJ, Anis AH. The cost of obesity in Canada. CMAJ 1999;160:483-88. 8. Calle EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, Rodriguez C, Heath CW, Jr. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1097-105. 9. Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL, Bouchard C. Underweight, overweight and obesity: Relationships with mortality in the 13-year follow-up of the Canada Fitness Survey. J Clin Epidemiol 2001;54:916-20. 10. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Manson JE, Stevens J, VanItallie TB. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA 1999;282:1530-38. 11. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, 3-5 June. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998. 12. Rothman KJ. Modern Epidemiology. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1986. 13. Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Public Health 1998;88:15-19. 14. Stephens T, Graham DF (Eds.). Canada’s Health Promotion Survey 1990: Technical Report. Ottawa, ON: Health and Welfare Canada, 1993. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY MORTALITY TRENDS IN CANADA 15. Rootman I, Warren R, Stephens T, Peters L (Eds.). Canada’s Health Promotion Survey: Technical Report. Ottawa, ON: Health and Welfare Canada, 1988. 16. Statistics Canada. 1994-95 NPHS Public Use Microdata Documentation. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada (Available at: http://prod.library.utoronto.ca/datalib/codebooks/cstdli/nphs/1994_r/nphs.pdf). 17. Statistics Canada. 1998-99 NPHS Public Use Microdata Documentation. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada (Available at: http://info.library.yorku.ca/depts/lds/docs/nphs/ nphs9899guide-all.pdf). 18. Statistics Canada. 1996-97 NPHS Public Use Microdata Documentation. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada (Available at: http://prod.library.utoronto.ca/datalib/codebooks/cstdli/nphs/1997/engdoc.pdf). 19. Statistics Canada. Health Indicators, May 2002. Catalogue No. 82-221-XIE, 2002. 20. Statistics Canada. Canadian Socio-economic Information Management System (CANSIM II). Accessed at University of Toronto (http://dc1.chass.utoronto.ca/cansim/cansim.htm l, Sept 19, 2002), 2002. 21. Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I, Ardern CI. Physical activity, adiposity and mortality. Obes Rev In Press. 22. Rowland ML. Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:1125-33. 23. Palta M, Prineas RJ, Berman R, Hannan P. Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight. Am J Epidemiol 1982;115:223-30. 24. Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA 2001;286:1195-200.
RÉSUMÉ Objectifs : Analyser les tendances temporelles du fardeau que l’embonpoint et l’obésité ont fait peser sur les chiffres de la mortalité au Canada entre 1985 et 2000. Conception : Les données sur la prévalence de l’embonpoint et de l’obésité proviennent de six enquêtes transversales nationales sur la population, à savoir : l’Enquête promotion santé (1985 et 1990), l’Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (1994, 1996 et 1998) et l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (2000), ainsi que d’une étude prospective de cohortes, publiée, portant sur l’embonpoint, l’obésité et la mortalité. Participants : Des adultes de 20 à 64 ans. Principal indicateur des résultats : Le nombre de décès attribuables à l’embonpoint et à l’obésité à l’échelle nationale et provinciale. Les décès attribuables ont été estimés selon la méthode de la fraction étiologique du risque, en combinant les données sur la prévalence aux risques relatifs de mortalité associés à l’embonpoint et à l’obésité. Nous avons mené une analyse de sensibilité bidirectionnelle en modifiant simultanément de ±10 % les taux de prévalence dans la population et les estimations du risque relatif. Résultats : Entre 1985 et 2000, la fraction étiologique du risque d’embonpoint et d’obésité à l’échelle nationale est passée de 5,1 % à 9,3 %, et le nombre annuel de décès attribuables à l’embonpoint et à l’obésité, de 2 514 (966 – 4 061) à 4 321 (2 114 – 6 542). Au total, 57 181 décès (25 075 – 89 227) ont été attribués à l’embonpoint et à l’obésité entre 1985 et 2000. Bien que la mortalité liée à l’embonpoint et à l’obésité soit en hausse dans toutes les provinces, le problème est particulièrement grave dans l’est du Canada. Conclusions : L’embonpoint et l’obésité sont d’importants problèmes de santé publique au Canada et ont causé quelque 57 000 décès au cours des 15 dernières années. Des campagnes de santé publique et des mesures d’intervention immédiates et radicales sont nécessaires pour ralentir ou inverser les tendances récentes.
Received: January 23, 2003 Accepted: June 30, 2003