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The Lower Limb II
Anatomy RHS 241 Lecture 3 Dr. Einas Al-Eisa
Tibia • The larger & medial bone of the leg • Functions: ¾Attachment of muscles ¾Transfer of weight from femur to skeleton of the foot ¾Articulations
Articulations • Only the tibia articulates with the distal end of femur to form the knee joint • Both the tibia & fibula articulate with the talus to form the ankle joint • The proximal & distal ends of the tibia & fibula articulate together to form the tibiofibular joints
Tibia Proximal end:
Condyles Tibial tuberosity
Three surfaces (ant, med, lat)
Distal surface Medial malleolus
Tibia • Medial & lateral condyles: articulate with the corresponding condyle of the femur • Tibial tuberosity: the attachment site of the patellar tendon • Anterior surface of the shaft: shin bone • Distal end: articulate with the talus to form part of the ankle joint
Surface Anatomy Palpate on a living knee: • Patella: base, margins, apex • Anterior margins of the medial & lateral condyles • Approximate level of the “Knee Joint Line”
Fibula • Slender • Lateral bone of the leg • Non-weight bearing • Mainly for the attachment of lateral leg muscles
Fibula • Head: articulate with the tibia to form the proximal tibiofibular joint • Shaft: for attachment of muscles • Latreal malleolus: articulate with the tibia to form the distal tibiofibular joint, and with the talus contributing to the ankle joint
Medial tibial condyle Tibial tuberosity Head of fibula Shin bone Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus
Right Tibia & Fibula Anterior view
Right Tibia & Fibula Posterior view
Muscles of the thigh • Anterior compartment: primary extensors of the knee joint • Medial compartment: adductors of the thigh • Posterior compartment: assist flexion of the knee and extension of the hip
Anterior compartment Quadriceps femoris: • Vastus medialis (from intertrochanteric line) • Vastus lateralis (from greater trochanter) • Vastus intermedius (ant & lat surface of femur) • Rectus femoris (from AIIS) Sartorius (ASIS to sup med surface of tibia)
Anterior compartment • Quadriceps femoris insertion: to base of the patella, then by patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity • Innervation: FEMORAL NERVE (L2-L4)
Femoral nerve • Arises from the lumbar plexus • Descends within the groove between the psoas major and iliacus muscles • Lateral to the femoral artery as it enters the thigh
Femoral nerve entrapments • Herniation of intervertebral discs (L2/L3 or L3/L4)
• At the level of inguinal ligament (femoral nerve neuropathy)
This may result in: ¾Weak extension of the knee ¾Weak patellar tendon reflex (L4 level reflex) ¾Cutaneous sensory changes (anterior thigh & L4 dermatome)
Medial compartment • From pubis to linea aspera of the femur: ¾Adductor longus ¾Adductor brevis ¾Adductor magnus ¾Gracilis
• Innervation: OBTURATOR NERVE (L2-L4)
Obturator nerve • Arises from the lumbar plexus • Courses medial to the psoas major muscle • Enters the thigh through the obturator canal • Sensory: medial skin of thigh (cutaneous)
• Biceps femoris: long head (ischial tuberosity to fibula) • Biceps femoris: short head (femur to fibula)
Posterior compartment • Act across the hip and knee joints except the short head of biceps femoris • Innervation: SCIATIC NERVE (L4-S3)
Sciatic nerve • Arises from the sacral plexus • Leaves the gluteal region at a point approximately half-way along a line joining the ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter • Terminates 12-15 cm above the knee by dividing into the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve
Sciatic nerve entrapments • Posterolateral herniation of the intervertebral discs (nerve root entrapment) • Misplaced needle when attempting injections in the gluteal region
Sciatica • Radiating, deep pain within the buttocks, posterior thigh, and often below the knee • Paresthesia or anesthesia (dermatomal in distribution)
Which bony points of the lower limb are reliable landmarks for measuring the length of the lower limb?
Ligaments of the knee joint • The knee depends heavily on ligaments for stability…………Why? • Ligament injuries of the knee have more serious long term implications than a fracture of the femur or tibia……..Why?
Ligaments of the knee joint • Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments: prevent anteroposterior displacement of the tibia • Medial and lateral collateral ligaments: restrain rotation and lateral movement at the knee
Ligaments of the knee joint • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): ¾arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia ¾runs posteriorly and laterally ¾attaches to the back of the medial side of the lateral femoral condyle
Ligaments of the knee joint • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL): ¾arises from the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia ¾extends anteriorly and medially ¾attaches to the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle
Anterior cruciate injury • The ACL limits forward movement of the tibia on the femur • Often ruptured in sports by sharp twisting movement (very common injury)
Posterior cruciate injury • PCL can be torn in 2 ways: ¾A blow to the upper end of the tibia when the knee is flexed (e.g., head on collision while seated on a motor cycle) ¾Hyperextension
Posterior cruciate injury • Assessment: posterior drawer sign with the knee flexed to 90o and the tibia is passively pushed posteriorly on the femur
Ligaments of the knee joint • Medial (tibial) collateral ligament: pass from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the proximal end of tibia • Fused posteriorly with the capsule of the knee joint
Ligaments of the knee joint • Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament: pass from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of fibula • Lateral to- and free of- the joint capsule
Medial collateral injury • Usually associated with tear of the ACL • Caused by valgus strain
Lateral collateral injury • Rarely injured on its own, except in lacerations • Not as important as the other ligaments • If injured, there is a high incidence of injury to the common peroneal nerve