VLF waves with modulated or steered

ELF/VLF waves have been generated via steerable HF heating of the lower ionosphere. The temperature‐dependent conductivity of the lower ionospheric ...

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May 25, 2012 - waves have been generated via heating of the lower ionosphere. (50–100 km altitude) with High Frequency (HF, 3–10 MHz) radio waves. Because HF heating of the lower ionosphere changes the conductivity, on/off modulation of the HF he

Jul 29, 2010 - conductivity of the lower ionosphere, natural ionospheric currents such as the auroral electrojet can be modulated if the ionospheric electrons can be heated by more easily gen- erated HF waves at ELF/VLF periodicities. Most ELF/VLF ex

heating. The resulting variation in electron temperature is used to calculate the full time evolution of the so‐called. Hall, Pedersen, and Parallel conductivities, from which the amplitudes and phases of conductivity modulation at the modulation f

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